VILHYET OF SMYRNA
(MAY TO JULY 1919)
INEDITED DOCUMENTS AND EVIDENCE OF ENGLISH AND FRENCH OFFICERS
The Permanent Bureau of the Turkish Congress
IMPRIMEKIE FETTER, LESSER & HELD. Caroline, 5
VILAYET OF SMYRNA
(MAY TO JULY 1919)
INEDITED DOCUMENTS AND EVIDENCE OF ENGLISH
AND FRENCH OFFICERS
The Permanent Bureau of the Turkish Congress
IMPRIMERIE PETTER. GIESSER & HELD, Caroline. 5
The ancient Eyalet, which became, about three quarters
of a century ago, the present Vilayet of Smyrna, is the brigh-
test Asiatic jewel of the Ottoman Crown.
Occupied by an overwhelming majority of Turks, even
previously to the Seldjoukides (Xth century) it constitutes
amongst all the provinces of Anatolia, the most populous,
the richest and the most prosperous. Its inhabitants are
renowned for thier bravery and their proverbial sturdiness.
There are 1.500.000 Turks, husbandmen for the most part,
as against 30.000 Greeks, traders and smugglers.
Since the re-establishment of the Constitution (1918) the
Turks of Smyrna and Ai'din have been amongst all their fellow-
countrymen of the Empire, those who gave themselves up the
most to agricultural and industrial enterprises and thus were
formidable competitors for the Greeks who enriched them-
selves without effort by monopolising the productions of the
Hinterland by the creation of trusts of purchase and expor-
During the two last wars when the Greek merchants
fleeing Ottoman military service as well indeed as Hellenic
conscription descended on the markets of Alexandria, Mar-
seilles Vienna, Switzerland and America, which felt the effects
of it very grievously the commerce of the Vilayet of Smyrna
passed entirely into the hands of the Turkish farmers who,
in order to defend themselves against future dangers of the
same sort, created numerous local banks, factories and pro-
ducers' cooperative societies.
The last Greek attack launched under the protection of
the armistice which had imposed the demobilisation of the
Ottoman armies whose field arttilery was all confiscated was
in fact only an assault of the parasites who had been evicted
by the awakening of Turkish initiative. It was the venting of
the helpess rage of the monopolizers and usurers, hopelessly
dispossessed not of their own belongings, but of their ancient
fields of cheatery.
The Hellenic authorities with the profound experience
that characterises them in the oppression and extermination
of the allogeneous peoples who have fallen into their clutches,
began, immediately after the occupation, to put into force
again their former ignoble system which met with such
success in the Morea, in Thessaly, in Epire, in Crete and re-
cently also in Macedonia. It consists first of all in pouring a
flood of professional bandits, of criminals of whom Greece
more than any other country possesses the monopoly, into
every corner of ground where a Hellenic soldier has set foot.
The native Greek scoundrels are always ready to lend them
a helping hand and an acute period of atrocious tyranny begins
at once. While the famous agency of Athens, by a profusion
of lies and slanders, of false accounts of Turkish atrocities,
diverts attention and throws a thick veil over the crimes of
its andartes and of its palikares, the latter more and more
excited by the newspapers, assured of impunity, do not shrink
from any infamy. Turkish villages burning, violations, mas-
sacres perpetrated upon peaceful Turkish inhabitants become
the order of the day. The unfortunate population, persecuted,
terrified, has no longer the courage to withstand such a re-
gime : in a body they leave their homes, their villages, their
crops, abandoning their fortune, their possessions, everything
to save then' lives and their honour. All these poor ruined fold,
often bereaved of their dearest ones, are stranded miserably
in the nonoccupied parts of the Mother-country. Everywhere
in Turkey one meets these poor Mouhadjirs (emigrants),
Cretes, Moreans, Macedonians, Epiriens, Thessalonians and
others, uprooted, in quest of aid or protection, and whose
tragic fate and account of their misfortunes stir the indigna-
tion of the most blase.
The visible persecutions, the sytematic atrocities only
cease to give place to the subtle exactions of the administ-
rative authorities. Wise oppression, learned despotism, aiming
methodically as Elysee Reclus, the eminent French geographer
says, at the degradation of the allogenes, is applied with a
veritable art. All that is not tireek is in fact outlawed. No
opportunity is lost of making them feel the spurred heel of
the oppressor. Even in the courts of justice which invariably
decide against all who are not Greek! This little people, im-
bued with great unrealisable ambitions is of a ferocious fana-
ticism, an 'incredible cruelty, a craftiness, an unparalleled
perfidiousness towards those who have the misfortune to fall
under its domination.
Such is the system of government applied to the allogenes
in the XXth. century, in the civilised Hellenic Kingdom; such
is the people that aspires to rule in the East over millions of
populations of another race, of another religion than its own.
To give over a country to Greece is to doom its inhabitants
to torture to depopulate it, to condemn it to moral and ma-
It was thus that they acted hi the Morea which had
three hundred thousand Mussulman inhabitants in 1830, in
Thessaly which numbered a hundred and fifty thousand in
1878, in Crete which' possessed 50.000 Turkish inhabitants
in 1897. In the Morea and in Thessaly to-day there no longer
exists a single Turkish soul. In Crete scarcely 20.000 Turks
have been able to survive the painful calvary of twenty years
of Greek oppression! In a short time none will be left. Mace-
donia, under the Greek heel, has lost in a few years the two
thirds of her best sons. As for Epire .... if the stones of this
poor country drowned in her blood, could be made to speak,
one would be ashamed of being a man since the authors of
these abominable crimes consider themselves also as such!
The Greek occupation with all its attendant horrors and
crimes has fallen also on the vilayet of Smyrna.
Detachments of regulars and bands of Greek comitadjis
have terrorised and given over to fire and sword these para-
disaical regions which the Turkish regime has left free from
all incursion during five centuries. One of the rare Ottoman
provinces on whose soil no fighting had been witnessed for
five hundred years, has just been the theatre of a hideous
invasion which in a few days reduced it to the likeness of the
perpetual battlefields of Macedonia; they have transformed
this marvellous country into a vast desert. Nearly 50.000 Turks
have perished there in the most frightful torments, whilst
300.000 other fugitives wander about without medicaments,
without shelter and without resource all round the zone of
Greek occupation which has become a hell for the Mussulmans.
At Smyrna itself in the great port of the Aegean Sea,
under the very eyes of indignant foreigners, no infamy has
been spared the Turkish population. The reports that we have
published to day throw sufficient light on the baseness of these
adventurers. But two parts of this province where the crimes
become of a truly reyolting magnitude are Menemen and Aidin.
Almost the whole Turkish population of Menemen were
massacred without any provocation, without any motive which
even the existence of disturbances could justify. As to the
tragedy of Aidin, it exceeds in horror all that can be imagined.
Nero, in setting fire to Rome, had not condemned the po-
pulation to be burnt alive in their dwellings. That is however
what the Greeks did at Aidin. From Smyrna as far as Nazilli
all the towns, villages, hamlets are nothing but a heap of
ruins and ashes. Most of them scarcely hide amongst their
still smoking wreckage, the carbonised corpses, the bleeding
remains of thousands of poor innocent Turks, of women, of
children, of old men sacrificed to the ferocity of the Hellenic
hordes. From all this devastated region, formerly one of the
most prosperous, a cry of frightful distress arises to-day.
The Permanent Bureau of the Turkish Congress at Lau-
sanne is able to publish to-day some document bearing wit-
ness in the most unquestionable fashion to the extent and
magnitude of the Greek atrocities.
It cannot specially insist on the reading of such and such
a paper, all without exception presenting a documentary and
historic interest of the highest importance on an unexampled
calamity that an error of political appreciation has let loose
over a part of our unhappy country.
Nothing can compare with this pitiless and bloody ho-
unding down of the Turk, which from the admission of En-
glish, French, and Italian witnesses characterises the Greek
occupation and the systematic destruction of our dear province.
Women of the high Greek society, elegant ladies of
Smyrna have given proof of a Kaffirlike bestiality taking
delight, even taking part with songs and laughter in the most
But bloodshed is never forgiven and justice works out
Under whatever regime we may live our dead will always
have a hold over Hellenism.
The victory of the allies cannot be regarded as a victory
of the Cross over the Crescent. The Mussulmans who fought
in the ranks of the allies would be surprised to learn that they
had shed their blood in such a cause. Quite otherwise were
the affirmations solemnly made to them when they were in-
vited to enrol themselves under the banner of the Entente.
In submitting these reports and testimonies to the superior
fraction of public opinion which professes the same humanita-
rian interest towards all the oppressed without distinction of
race or religion, we appeal to the impartial opinion of Europe
and of America that justice nothing but justice may be
rendered to the rights of an overwhelming Turkish majority
and that the Turkish province of Smyrna may be for ever clean-
sed from the pollution of a multitude of criminal adventurers.
Translation of the letter No 1/24516, dated 26th
June 1919, addressed by the Colonel Kemal, Commandant
General of the Gendarmerie, to the French Colonel
Foulon, Inspector General.
Since the signing of the armistice, the various events
which take place in the different parts of the Empire as well
as the crimes committed there are regularly communicated
to you by the report which the Commandant General receives
daily from the commandants of the Gendarmerie units.
You must certainly have remarked that it 'is the Turks
who suffer the most from these events and from these crimes.
The reports that you yourself receive from the foreign officers
attached to the reorganisation of the gendarmerie only corro-
borate the events which are notified to me by the comman-
dants of the aforesaid units, whose reports are submitted to
you in the original.
The Greek bands which are formed everywhere are con-
tinually attacking the lives, the property and the honour of
the Turks. The gendarmerie at whose reorganisation numeri-
cally as well 'as from the point of view of quality you also
work with such great ardour, is overcoming the great diffi-
culties it encounters from this cause. It carries out its service
with zeal and the last reports that reach us, denote that its
activity is crowned with success in a certain measure.
Only when the gendarmerie is overwhelmed by events
whose extent is beyond its means to control, inevitably, not-
hing can be done to prevent these criminal acts.
Thus for instance, in the course of the occupation of
Smyrna and during the days which followed this occupation,
the Hellenic soldiers to whom the native Greeks had formerly
joined themselves, committed crimes against the population.
The officers and men of the Ottoman gendarmerie were not
spared. Those of our officers and gendarmes who are now at
Smyrna and its neighbourhood continue to be exposed to bad
treatment and in consequence are prevented from carrying
out their service.
It stands out from the reports which I have the honour
to forward you, respecting the occupation, under atrocious
circumstances of the Cazas (districts) of Menemen and Ber-
gamo, coming after that of Smyrna, that the massacres car-
ried out by the regular Hellenic troops in conjunction with
the native Greeks were of such a bloody nature that they
form a blot on the history of the twentieth century. Accor-
ding to these reports the number of victims, including women,
children, old men and sick and infirm people, massacred at
Menemen by the Hellenic regulars by the native Greeks is
estimated at a thousand Mussulmans. The deputy governor
of the Gaza as well as most of the functionaries of the local
authorities were abominably massacred without any reason.
It results from the reports that I receive on all hands
that the Turks who from the large majority of the population
of the Cazas in question have had to leave in a body, to the
number of eighty thousand, their villages, their homes, their
crops and even their children of tender years and to emigrate
to other regions in order to save their lives and their honour,
and not to share the dreadful lot of their co-religionists.
I am absolutely convinced that the great nations of Europe
and America, whose generous and humanitary sentiments are
well known, will never permit this unhappy and innocent popu-
lation, which. after all forms part of the human race, to be
thus continually and savagely threatened, its property pillaged
and destroyed and its honour sullied.
It is beyond all doubt thet the crimes every day more
numerous, committed by the Hellenes, who glory openly in
having occupied Smyrna by the decision of the Powers of the
Entente, would be severely repressed and their authors pu-
nished, if they could be brought to the notice, with all their
details, of the governments which represent the great, just
nations of Europe and of America, Indeed I am convinced
that all sorts of artifices are employed to prevent the crimes
committed being brought to their knowledge. I have then re-
course to your great generosity, which every day manifests
itself afresh, and beg you, in order to save my unhappy nation
from the unbearable calamities under which she is overwhel-
med to point out these crimes to the powerful personages who
hold in their hands the destinies of the world and to inform
the civilised universe that the Turks and the Mussulmans are
being slaughtered like sheep and that their existence, their
property and their honour are being annihilated.
Your compassionate intervention will perhaps contribute
to put an end to the injustices to which is exposed an unhappy
people which, like every other nation has a right to existence.
Though I am at the head of an organisation charged with the
protection, the life, the honour and the property of the popula-
tion, I unhappliy do not succeed in fulfilling this mission. Thus
I sincerely trust, that with your highly humanitarian senti-
ments you will fully share the profound grief that I feel at
seeing the innocent blood of my nation shed every day and
that you will receive my solicitations favourably.
The Turkish people which cherishes in its bleeding heart
a well founded hope in you, which awaits with 'impatience the
results of the steps which you will surely not fail to take for
its protection and the defence of its just cause, is ready to
inscribe in its glorious history in letters of gold your venerated
I take this opportunity Sir of begging you to accept the
expression of my gratitude.
The Commandant General of the Gendarmerie,
(signed) The Colonel A. KEMAL SIRRI.
The Tragedy of Smyrna
Presented on the 13th of June 1919 by the Committeefor
the Defence of Ottoman Bights hi Smyrna to H. H.
Tewfick Pacha, Ottoman Plenipotentiary at the Peace
We notice with regret that the high political spheres act
under the instigation of certain ambitious and unscrupulous
politicians who, to aid them in their designs of appropriating
to their own advantage our legitimate rights, do not hesitate
to compromise the Turkish good name by slanders and fal-
sehoods. It is moreover in this disloyal manner that they sow
mistrust amongst the civilised world as to our present or fu-
ture conduct, which cannot but be in conformity with the con-
ception of liberty and of justice that characterises the new
era. Thus the Committee for the Defence of Ottoman Rights
in Smyrna begs Your Highness to be pleased to present, with
all the earnestness they deserve, our complaints here set forth,
to the attention and to the spirit 6f equity of these high poli-
At the moment when one is still mourning the torrents
of blood lavished in profusion, one must confess that this
general war, the responsibility of whose declaration and pro-
longation ought to fall upon the directors of certain States,
who by all sorts of means were able to stifle the voice of their
people, had everywhere given birth to the hope of the estab-
lishment of a lasting peace, based upon the true principles
of humanity and of justice. Your Highness is aware that the
first unexpected blow which gravely shook this hope in our
country was the occupation, with premeditated savagery, of
Smyrna by the Hellenic troops.
This occupation is effected with the aim of preparing a
propitious ground, under the yoke of an unsignificant Greek
minority which one seems decided to strengthen by Hellenic
measures, for a policy of rapid extermination of the enormous
Mussulman majorty inhabiting the Vilayet of Aidin.
Effected in defiance of the national self-respect of the
right to existence and of the sentiment of the Turks, it has
brought out it is true, the profound difference of conception
which separates the Ottoman Sovereignty from the brutal
Hellenic domination, but has justly plunged the whole Mus-
sulman population into an alarming anxiety as to their ulti-
mate safety. The robberies, pillages, outrages, murders and
barbarities of which Smyrna and her dependencies were, and
still are the theatre since this fatal occupation, were never
experienced for a single day under the Ottoman sovereignty.
The Greek army has not hesitated to commit against the Mu-
sulmans acts of an ignominy that would have been repugnant
even to the barbarian hordes of antiquity carrying a town by
storm at the cost of heavy and bloody sacrifies.
The native Greeks who have lived for centuries in tran-
quillity and opulence, thanks to the benevolent attitude of the
Turks and to the privileges they were granted; these people
who more than any others have enriched themselves and pro-
fited by the economic resources of the Empire while the Tur-
kish people shed its blood freely in order to maintain the order
and security of the country; these false brothers for whose
prosperity and development we have been drained to the ut-
most, were the first to give the bad example to their Hellenic
The uniforms, fez, turbans, even the pictures and works
of art representing national subjects were the object of the
destructive rage of the Greek soldiers and civilians. Today the
Mussulmans of the occupied territories enjoy no liberty at all.
The governmental correspondence is under a severe control,
the Turkish newspapers are under an inexorable censorship
and the Turks are under the continual menace of Greek ruf-
fians. The revolting events which took place at Smyrna having
had for disgusted witnesses all the foreigners and the naval
forces of the Entente, we judge it unnecessary to recall them
here; moreover the precautions taken by the Greeks to prevent
all communication, have deprived us of the details upon the
inhuman crimes committed by the Hellenes. We shall content
ourselves here, with giving a brief summary of the events
which took place at Rournabat, Bosyaka, Djuma-Ovassi, He-
uredje, Nife, Sivri-Hissar, Ourla and also a very incomplete
list of the human losses and of the Turkish houses and shops
In the course of the occupation all the drawers, cup-
boards, safes of the Government were broken open and the
contents scattered everywhere in the hope of finding paper
money; besides that, all that the employes had on them, even
their clothes, their overcoats and other things were stolen.
From the vaM to the humblest clerk all were driven along the
quay in a scandalous manner, their hands up, and commanded
under pain of death to shout Zito Venizelos ; at every step
they received showers of blows from the butt ends of guns
and from bayonets. A large group of schoolmasters was con-
ducted to the ship Patris with the same revolting ceremo-
nial to be interned there. Among the officers who were in the
barracks fourteen were killed; amongst others the Colonel
Fethy Bey, Nadu- Bey, Fahreddin Effendi, Ahmed Bey, etc.
The student Ihsan Effendi No 30 of the sehool of Arts and
Crafts was murdered by evzones in front of the Banque Ag-
ricole. The mahalebidji (milkman) Ahmed Aga of the Djedit
quarter was cut to pieces. The agents of the Central police
office were savagely killed at. their posts by the soldiers. The
police superintendent de Nourla Hussein Effendi was also cul
to pieces in front of the Banque Agricole. The proprietor of
the newspaper Houkoukou Becher (The Rights of Man) Tahsin
Redjeb Bey was killed in his house. Two young printer lads
of the newspaper Keuylu were assassinated. Refik Effendi
military policeman was killed in a horrible manner. At the
military hotel opposite the Government buildings eight per-
sons," men, women and children were assassinated. Halid
Effendy a police functionary was killed. Saghir Hassan and
Cavass Ahmed de Sparta were victims of the son of the keeper
of a house of ill-fame a certain Iskona Marianti. About fifty
mussulmans, boatmen of the place called Passports, were
chained together and drowned in the sea. Their bodies with
those of a great number of other victims were gradually
washed up along the coast. The tax-gatherer of the Tilkilik
quarter, Noury Bey, was riddled by bayonets and finally
succumbed before the printing-house of Keuylu from the effcts
of about fifty wounds. The former police officer Ahmed Effen-
di was cut to pieces by Greek soldiers. The boatman Tatar
Hussein was murdered. Many families whose names we ref-
rain from mentioning were dishonoured. The folio whig houses,
shops, hotels, casinos establishments were pillaged and sac-
ked : The casino du Pare, the cafe and Hotel Askeri. The Han
d'Evlia Zade, the restaurant Boloulou Mehemed, the books-
shop Ahmed Ragbib freres, dairy and pastry cook's Ibrahim
Hakki, the chemist's shop Chifa, the Club "Foyer du Droit"
of Ekmekdji Bachi Han, the shoemaker's shop Hadji Hafiz
Mustapha Freres, the restaurant Ismail Effendi and his house
at Caratache, the shops of Taschdji Osman Effendi; Hadji Ha-
fiz Fikri and Selanikli Hafiz Hussein, the Bazaar of Ala-Chehir,
the shop of the shoemaker Hakki Austa, the carpets and
sedjades of the mosques Hissar and Beulcuk Bashi, the ca-
sino of the officers of reserve opposite the Passeports, the
shop of the watchmaker Tewfik at Odoun Bazar, at Arasta
and in front of the old law court aboul 120 mussulman shops,
the shop of Kerestedji Djihan Bey, the house at Kilidj Ali of
the Superintendent of Police Mehmed Effendi, that of the
agent Mustapha at Dibek Baschi, the shop of Ali Haydar, the
house of the census director Hassan Bey at Alay Bey, at Ka-
ratach not a stone was left standing of the house Noury Bey,
at Gueuz-Tepe of the house of the watchmaker Hafiz Mehmed
Effendi, of the house of the late Baldji Zade Hamid Bey; at
Karantina of the house of Lieutenant Colonel Tahir Bey and
that of Captain Hilmi Bey; in the street Mektoubdji the house
of the ex-commodore, that of the secretary of the vilayet Ah-
med Bey the house and the shop of Akardjali Zade Hadji Bec-
kir Effendi, the house of the ex-director of the central prison
Noury Bey, the house at Bozyaka of Hussein Rifat Bey, all
the house of the quarter Eshref Pacha under pretext of
searching for arms. In the street Franque, the private hospi-
tals of the doctors Mehmed Ali, Essad Nazif, Cherif, Fuad,
At Bournabat on the 16th May 1919 the mussulman popu-
lation was the object of the fury of the venizelits who attac-
ked their houses, stript them of every object of value and thre-
atened them with the worst reprisals if they were denounced.
Here is the of list of the proprietors whose houses were sacked.
Dr. Ghalib Bey, the retired Major Tahsin Bey, Ahmed Effendi
of the Banque Agricole, the retired Hussein Hussni Effendi,
Aidinli Karanfil Noury Bey, ete... The losses of these persons
amount to about 5000 Turkish pounds. From Ghalib' s wife and
daughters the jewels and precious stones they were wearing
were brutally torn away. A large number of cattle and flocks
of sheep were carried off. Implements of husbandry to the
vaue of 18.000 pounds were destroyed. Among the inhabitants
one named Sadik aged 55 years and one named Hadji Omer
Oglou Hussein (45 years) were killed and thrown into a well.
Dibagh Ali and five soldiers who could not be identified at
Palamouth, and the workmen Ali and Hadji Mehmed Agha
were shot by ignoble assassins; the native of Crete Emin and
his son Mouharem were strangled with a cord and thrown
into a well. At. Palamouth, Merdjan and Tchoban Hussein
were gravely wounded. Besides these fourteen other persons
were killed by firearms. On Sunday, by order of the Greek
Commandant, the mussulmans were forbidden to open their
shops before the services in the Christian churches are over.
3. The region of the villages of Gueuredje and Djouma
Ovassi were pillaged and burnt; the inhabitants have all
emigrated abandoning their homes.
-4. At Nife, it is an escaped convict named Cassaross,
condemned for assassinations and various crimes to 15 years
hard labour, who today in Greek uniform is charged by the
Greek authorities, in company with some of his former com-
panions in crime, with the maintenance of order and security.
The molestations of the mussulmans by these brigands have
reached a point that baffles description. Seven Musulmans
arrested by these vagabonds were left 3 days without anything
to eat or drink. The houses of the village of Kara-Tcham were
pulled down to be used for fire wood by the Greek soldiers
sent to look for wood.
5. At Vourla a certain Mehmed died in consequence of
ill-treatment inflicted by the Greek soldiers. A great many of
the Houses of the caza were pillaged whilst those of the sur-
rounding villages became the prey of the flames.
6. At Sivri-Hissar the gendarmes and officers were loc-
ked up for there days in the Greek school and at the residence
of the Caimakam, respectively, after which they were sent
on food to Smyrna. The inhabitants under the futile pretext
of searching Jfor arms were imprisoned and beaten. The nota-
bilities Mehmed Bey and Behdjet Effendi were maltreated
all along the way to Smyrna, where they are still in prison.
The latter who is major of the commune of Doghan was the
lauhingstock of his warders, who made him sweep the streets
7. Not content with these cruelties and attacks upon
honour, liberty of conscience was also trampled under foot
and Mussulmans were forced to conversion by then- executi-
oners. We can mention here the policemen of the Karakol of
Fassoula. Chefket and Ramezan effendis who were named
respectively Lefter and Dimitri.
These facts that we have just related and those of which
we have not yet been able to get information, these barba-
rous and ignoble acts, perpetrated under the very eyes of the
foreigners, of the forces of the Entente and of their comman-
dants including the admiral in chief Calthrop, justify the
anguish of the Turkish population which sees its honour, its
life and its prosperity in danger. The Hellenic policy which
has reduced to nothing the Turkish population of Thessaly,
which in the isle of Crete has reduced it from one third to one
tenth, which even in such a short space of time has succeeded
in reducing it by one half in Macedonia this policy is calculated
to drive to despair even the most short-sighted of optimists.
We beg you consquently to present these facts to the atten-
tion of the Peace Conference and to make it cleary understand
that the Mussulman population which composes the 85 % of
the total population of the Vilayet of Smyrna, that is the over-
whelming majority will never be able to admit nor accept a
peace which would rob it of the smallest portion of these co-
untries in order to give it in justly to any other nation, above
all to the most cruel and intolerant among them. In giving this
mandate to Your Highness we are supported by the express
will of the inhabitants of the whole vilayet, a will which is
entirely confirmed by the resistance they oppose to the Hellenic
Copy of the report addressed to the Ministry of
War by the General Ali Nadir Pacha commanding
the IVth Army corps of Smyrna.
May 20th 1919
1. I had informed your Excellency of the official commu-
nication made to me by the English Admiral Calthrop the
14/5/1919 at 9 h. in the morning, and announcing to me the
occupation of the fortified positions of Smyrna by the forces
of the Entente according to the clauses of article seven, of the
armistice. It informed me also that this decision had been
brought to the knowledge of the Sublime-Porte. Your Excelle-
ncy had replied that naturaly must conform to the clauses
of the armistice, and not give ear to the persistent rumours
of the annexation of the town of Smyrna to Greece, rumours
that I had also not failed to communicate to Your Excellency.
2. The same day at 11 h. 30 a. m. the admiral Calthrop
communicates to me the following note :
"According to the seventh article of the armistice and
with the consent of the Powers of the Entente, Smyrna will
be occupied by the Hellenic troops. The transports which are
to convey them will begin the landing tomorrow morning at
8 o'clock. From 7 o'clock detachments of Greek sailors will
occupy the landing stairs. To prevent any regrettable incident
and any misunderstanding, all the troops in the quarter of
the Passeports, as far as the point, except the posts of police
and gendarmerie, must concentrate at the barracks and con-
form to the decision of the commandant of the occupation
corps. The Telegraph and Post-Office will be immediately
occupied by an English detachment to prevent all communi-
cation with the exterior."
The note ended with the threat that if necessary order
and tranquillity would be maintained by means of the naval
forces of the Entente present in the port. The case was bro-
ught to Your Excellency's knowledge the 15/5/1919 at 1 h. p.
m. and orders were immediately given to conform to the
prescriptions of the note and for the maintenance of order.
3. The 15/5/1919 the Greek detachment having landed
marched to the barracks at 11 o'clock in the morning. At the
head of the troops, a large Greek flag was carried by native
Greeks who surrounded and preceded them in a compact body,
shouting Zito Venizelos and applauding frantically. It was
in this state that the crowd and the soldiers began to march.
In the barracks the officers and men of the army corps of the
recruiting office of the 56th division, of the regiment of ca-
valry and of divers bodies of troops were at their posts. The
procession had already passed and turned round the barracks
by the tramway street when a shot went off, fired very likely
by a Greek manifester. The Greek troops then immediately
took up their position against the barracks and opened a steady
fire; a light machine gun posted not far from there also took
part in the fusillade. The officers surprised by the sudden-
'ness and energy of the attack assembled in the corridors of
the building where the firing did not take much effect.
Convinced that incident provoked had been premeditated
with the object of disorganising the Turkish administrative
machinery, and of profiting by that to injure the rights of
the peaceful inhabitants, and understanding moreover that
to remedy this state of things the only means was to stop
the firing, I did my utmost to bring this about. But every
attempt on our part only had the effect of redoubling the fu-
sillade. As a last resource I had a white flag fastened to a long
pole and following it, I proceeded in person towards the Greek
troops. I then saw them, officers and soldiers alike, rush
upon us with fixed bayonets. Moreover to prove that we had
absouutely not returned fire and to leave no room for doubt
I and my followers were unarmed. There I stopped. Our
presence which ought to have imposed calm upon the least
disciplined of armies, exasperated them on the contrary and
the firing continued for some time.
4. From the monent that we crossed the doorway of the
barracks there began for us a series of crimes and insults such
as has never been recorded in history up to now. Never has
the dignity and honour of governments as well as soldiers been
attacked in the way the Greeks attacked ours. Without any dis-
tinction of rank or grade, myself included, the disarmed offi-
cers were attacked with the grossest insults. Under a rain of
blows from bayonets and butt ends of guns, they were sear-
ched, everything found on them was stolen, handkerchiefs,
watches, pocketbooks, snuff-boxes, rings, money ete. Our
military head dresses were slashed and trampled upon. Then
surrounded by a crowd spitting out the foulest insults, this
unhappy convoy was marched off. The Hellenic officers who
were there, far from preventing these unworthy abuses, on
the contrary excited by their attitudes and gestures this co-
arse populace and their low instincts.
5. Then a most horrible spectacle, a scene to make the
most hardened, the most blase heart shudder with indignation,
took place all along the road. The troops of occupation ranged
on both sides and the Greek populace armed with revolvers
fired at a venture on the convoy and at every step struck the
the officers with sticks, with daggers and anything they could
lay hands on. People who were on the Greek boats anchored
in the port, on the balconies of the houses and apartments,
in cafes or elsewhere, all native Greeks or Hellenic soldiers,
all participated more or less in some way or other in this
frightful ordeal. Officers with their hands up were forced to
cry "Zitos", Many of them as well as of the soldiers succumbed
beneath the blows or were killed or wounded by the firearms.
It was in front of the Oriental Bank and near a Greek torpedo
boat moored to the quay that we were the most exposed to
the fire. All this went on under the eyes of the foreigners, of
the officers and soldiers of the naval units of the Entente,
present at this moment. Although our losses have not been
entirely determined one may count more tham 40 killed and
60 wounded; among the victims may be mentioned the head
of the recruiting office of the IVth. Army Corps, Colonel
Suleiman Fethi Bey, the staff Colonel Ali Bey, the head doc-
tor Lieutenant Colonel Chukri Bey, and the chief of staff
Abdoul Hamid Bey and many others.
6. In the boats more than thirty evzones, ordered to
search the officers afresh, behaved as was to be expected in
the vilest manner. They spared them no insult, no humiliation.
7. All the officers including myself were driven into the
holds of the boats beside the animals. After 6 or 7 hours of
ill-treatment and imprisonment, I, the chief of staff Abdoul
Hamid Bey and the ommandant of the 56th division were led
to the harracks with the object of completing in a delay of
two hours the evacuation of the town.
8. The officers remaining in the boat were much later, led
by degrees into the second class cabins. In these cabins which
held at the most thirty persons, were crowded about a hundred
and fifty officers and a great number of the policemen and civi-
lians who had been arrested. During the 48 hours which elap-
sed before the arrival of the allied officers absolutely no food
was given them, and after that they received only dry bread,
cheese and a few figs. The wounded officers were bandaged
very carelessly and one of them whose condition was very
serious was left for two days without care and without ban-
dages. They could only breathe fresh air for a few moments
every three or four hours when they were allowed to go up
on deck. I spare you all the details of the frightful misery
endured by the body of officers during their internment.
9. As a result of our continual efforts we managed the
15/5/1919 to remove the officers from this painful situation:
they were taken back to the barracks, from where some hours
later, the married men were able by means of permits delivered
by the Hellenic military authorities, to return home while those
who were unmarried were kept at the barracks.
10. Here is a summary of the occurrences that took place
in the barracks and other military buildings.
The whole barracks were the object of attacks and robbe-
ries; the safes of the Army Corps, the Recruiting office of the
56th division, and of the engineers' battalion containing more
than a hundred and fifty thousand pounds were completely
pillaged. All the effects of the soldiers and officers were stolen.
11. The soldiers and officers belonging to bo bodies of
troops stationed outside the barracks, were arrested separately,
beaten, insulted, robbed and the safes of these establishments
were likewise pillaged.
12. The officers thus stript of all they had on them, find
themselves in a state of complete destitution. Besides the ho-
uses of most of them have been completely sacked. A certain
number of officers' families also underwent outrages at the
hands of Greek bandits. In consequence all the officers of
Smyrna are today prostrated, destitute and profoundly afflic-
13. The regiments of Aivalik, of Magnesie, of Aidin, of
Sauke and of Anatolia belonging to my commandment have
not so far been able to communicate with me. I shall inform
you as soon as it is possible for them.
I beg your Excellency to accept ete.
All Nadir Pacha.
Cipher report addressed the 20/5/1919 to the Minister
of War by Ali Nadir Pacha, commanding
the 17th Army Corps at Smyrna.
The victims of the tragic events of Smyrna are the follo-
wing : Among the superior officers and subalterns :
Killed : The head of the recruiting office Suleiman Fethy
Bey, the clerk of the third class of the first section of the Staff
Nadir Bey, the clerk of the third class of the first section of
the commissariat Ahmed Hamdi, the regimental secretary
Fethy Bey, the Lieutenant Major of the second section of
Commissariat Hussein Nedjati Bey, the head-doctor of the
Army Corps Lieutenant-Colonel Chukri-Bey, the head-chemist
captain Ahmed Effendi, the Lieutenant Faik of the engineer
company and the captain Nazmi of the recruiting office.
Wounded : The head of the surveying office Colonel Ali
Bey, of the same office Lieutenant Colonel Djemal Bey, the
chief of staff Abdul Hamid Bey, the secretaries Sadeddin,
Zihni, Hairi, Nazim, Akif, Ibrahim, effendis, the Liutenant
aide de camp Nechet, the colonel in chief of the third division
Abbas Beys, The aide de camp of the army corps Behaeddin,
the Captain Nassouhi the Lieutenants Galib and Djemal, the
Telegraphic-Engineer Selaheddin, the Lieutenant of Commis-
sariat Zin, the Engineer-Captain Hairi, the Lieutenant atta-
ched to the staff of the 56th division Rif at and the Lieutenant
Mehmed Ali Effendis.
Missing : The cavalry Lieutenant Chukry, the secretary
Halit, the Captain Mehmed Noury, the Major Houloussy Bey,
the Lieutenant-aviator Osman, the Lieutenant Disan, Ibrahim
Hakki, Kutchuk Hai'ri, the Battery Commandant Major Aziz,
the artillery Captain Hassan Fehmi, the artillery Lieutenant
Surrouri Hairi, Edhem and Halid, the Lieutenants Chukri,
Hamid, Murteza, Kemal, the adjutant Ali Yaver, the Comman-
dant of the field howitzers Major Mahmoud Nedim of the same
Army Corps, the Captains Seid Ali, Djelal, the Lieutenants
Tewfik and Aziz and Ghalib Effendis.
Up to now we do not know if those officers are dead or
alive. I shall not fail to inform you as soon as I receive any
information about any them.
Ali Nadir Pacha.
Report sent to the Commandant General of the
Gendarmerie at Constantinople by the Officer
of Commissariat of the Governor General of Smyrna.
In my quality of officer of Gendarmerie and Commissariat
of the Governor General of Smyrna, I consider it as a military
and patriotic duty to set forth to you, herewith, in detail, the
events which took place in the course of the occupation of
Smyrna by the Hellenic army, as well as the cruelties and
injuries of every sort to which our civil and military functi-
onaries were exposed and especially the officers and men of
Gendarmerie as well as the Mussulman population including
women children and old men.
On the 15th of May at 10 h. in the evening. Admiral Calt-
hrop sent a note to the Governor-General informing him that
on the morning of the 16th Smyrna and its surroundings would
be placed under Greek military occupation. Very early that
morning indeed, more than twenty transports were to be seen
which had conveyed the first Hellenic division to the port.
Thereupon a proclamation was issued written in Turkish and
in Greek and signed by the Colonel Zaffirion.
The first detachment of the occupying forces which landed
on the quay went to occupy the police transport office. The
policemen and gendarmes who were in this office were conse-
quently withdrawn and taken back to the offices of the Com-
mandment of the regiment of gendarmerie. They had scarcely
arrived when one saw advancing along the quays in the direc-
tion of the barracks a battalion of Hellenic evzones preceded
by its Commandant on horseback and followed by an officer
of lower rank bearing the Hellenic standard. A great number
of women and children preceded and accompanied this batta-
lion. The representatives of the Greek army as well as a great
number of members beloning to the organisation of the "Me-
gali Idea" (Great Idea) also followed it revolver in hand. The
crowd like the Greek soldiers passed before the barracks with
order and in perfect tranquillity. At the moment when they
were turning the corner of the street and were about two
hundred meters away from the barracks a report was heard.
It was one of the individuals armed with a revolver and who
accompanied the Hellenic battalion who must have fired; he
may even have done so involuntarily, by accident. However
that may be the shot spread panic amongst the Hellenic troops
and, officers and men alike began to free in all directions and
principally in that from which they had come. The detachment
which followed them, then took up their position in the garden
situated between the Governor General's palace and the bar-
racks and taking for targets the doors and windows of the
barracks they opened a very heavy fire. It was not returned
from any side. Nevertheless the fusillade was kept up for more
than half an hour. Some Turkish women and children who were
there, seized with terror, had taken refuge in the staircases
at the entrance of the Banque Agricole, thinking to be more
or less sheltered from the fusillade; they were massacred
without pity. Literally streams of blood were flowing down
the steps of the staircase of the Bank, forming a pool in front
of the building.
In the proclamation which he had had posted up early in
the morning the Commandant of the Hellenic troops of occupa-
tion invited the administrative and judiciary functionaries to
continue to exercice their functions as in the past.
Trusting to the terms of this proclamation all the func-
tionaries of the Turkish Government were at their post. But
when they saw the Greek soldiers mounting to the floor of
the military casino, situated opposite the Government palace,
and from there direct a lively fusillade on this palace, all those
people in danger went and grouped themselves instinctively
round the Governor General to await the course of events.
The room where the Vali and the functionaries as well as
the officers of gendarmerie were assembled was hi the part of
the Konak (the governmental Palace) comparatively the least
exposed. It was decided to make the Greeks understand by
means of a white sheet hoisted on the fagade that there was
no firing from the Konak and that the fusillade should be
stopped at least on that side. But it was of no avail. The
firing continued more violently than ever and when at last
it ceased outside, we suddenly heard shots coming from the
lower floor of the Governmental Palace. The assailants had
penetrated into the Konak. But imagining wrongly however
as we saw only too well later on that there would certainly
be an officer at the head of these assaillants who could be
brought to hear reason, we opened wide the doors of the
Governor General's room and in Greek, we invited the soldiers
who were already mounting to come in. Two evzones with fixed
bayonets penetrated into the salon. They were told several
times that this room was the seat of the Government and that
the Governor himself was there in person. But the two soldiers
began to utter threats and insults in Greek and in Turkish and
ordering us to hold up our hands obliged us all to descend. On
the staircase outside the room where we were assembled other
evzones with fixed bayonets had ranged themselves. Everyone
filed past these brutes. Without regard to their rank even the
highest functionaries were struck with the butt-ends of guns,
pricked with bayonets and several were seriously wounded.
On the lower floor, the Greek soldiers first of all obliged
the functionaries to trample on their fez and their calpaks
(headdresses). Those who hesitated had their headdress taken
off on the points of bayonets. It was thus that many of them
were wounded in the head and in the face. The native Greeks
having likewise joined the Hellenic soldiers, the civilian fun-
ctionaries were for the most part violently beaten with blows
from guns, pieces of wood or bars of iron. On the pretext of
looking for arms they were searched, and of course robbed
of all they had on them. The Hellenic soldiers tore their uni-
forms from our officers of gendarmerie who were, like the
others, the object of odious treatment. Encircled by several
soldiers who guarded them whem with fixed bayonets, all
those people were conducted to the quay. The were forced at
the bayont's point to cry : "Zito Venizelos!" With hands up
and bare heads, this sorry convoy which certainly does no
honour to the Hellenes who organisel it was thus driven
along for some time.
A certain distance had already been traversed, when the
representative of Greece arrived in a motor-car and took the
Governor General and his son away with him. The others
were without rhyme or reason, beaten, insulted, wounded
with bayonets and even killed. Dragged along the quay, the
most important thoroughfare of the town, no injury, no
humiliation was spared to these poor people. The military
representatives of the Powers of the Entente who were in
the battle-ships moored in the port, the foreigners and nota-
bilities inhabiting the buildings on the quay were witnesses
of these crimes.
Several of our officers and functionaries disarmed and
defenceless, escorted by Hellenic detachments were massac-
red by them under the very eyes of the foreigners. The native
Greeks, had armed themselves for the occasion with pieces
of wood, bars of iron, chains and all sorts of insruments of
violence. When a group of officers under escort arrived in
front of the customhouse offices the Hellenic regulars and
the Greek natives fell upon them in a body showering blows
upon them. The adjutantmajor Nedjati Effendi, was thus
assassinated with incredible tortures, his son of 8-10 years
who was with his father that day was dragged along with him
and witnessed his tragic end. Mad with grief, in convulsions
of tears, and with cries of anguish he threw himself on the
bleeding and mangled body of his father. It was a horrible
sight, the unhappy child also received a bayonet thrust! No
humane feelings touch a Greek heart, they have given ample
proof of it. Our officers and our functionaries divided into
several groups were, during the whole passage from the Ko-
nak and the barracks to the custom-house offices, the object
of the coarsest insults from the Greek populace. Greek ladies,
fashionable members of their high society drew special atten-
tion by their enthusiasm, and their zeal in uttering the vilest
insults. They threw whatever they could lay their delicate
hands on, stones, lumps of earth, broken tiles ete. Some even
fired revolvers the better to prove that they were the worthy
wives of the modern Greeks.
Besides the functionaries and officers all the Turks and
Mussulmans who were met that day in the streets and in the
country, little children not excepted, were arrested and impriso-
ned in different places with the same proceedings. The young
pupils of the schood Sultanie (high school) situated beside
the Konak were also imprisoned and victims of the same
treatment. These unfortunate children were beaten and marty-
rised in a truly inhuman fashion. All the prisoners were con-
fined in groups at the Corn Exchange, at the flour depots,
in empty shops and in cattle depots. They were left for three
days without food. And when they were set at liberty, several
amongst them, fathers of families went home to find them-
selves in presence of a second tragedy.
The day and the evening when the functionaries and the
inhabitants were thrown into prison, the native Greeks, led
by Greek Boy-scouts penetrated into the houses of several
officers and State employes. Besides pillage in the due form
no crime was neglected. A Mussulman whose name and add-
ress are known to us, saw his wife violated before his eyes
by the Hellenic soldiery. The Mussulman market, as well as
the Mussulman shops in the quarters inhabited by Christians
were completely pillaged, the safes broken open and emptied
of their contents. The offices of the authorities were completely
ransacked. The drawers of the desks were forced open with
bayonets all documents destroyed. All the strongboxes belon-
ging to the different administrations of the State were burst
open by means of spcial instruments, and their contents stolen.
Nothing was left. Even pens and inkstands were carried off.
The morocco arm-chairs which were in the Governor's room
were cut up in order to carry off the morocco leather. All the
telephone apparatus were destroyed or rendered useless. All
the furniture of the barracks was thrown out of the windows,
and so broken as to be of no use.
Moreover during this fatal day the Greeks massacred
all the isolated policemen and gendarmes in the interior or
exterior of the town. A fortnight after these events several
dead bodies were still washed up by the sea. The decomposed
bodies of three policemen, bound together by chains passed
round their necks, were thrown up by the waves upon the
quay du pare, opposite the Government Palace. This occurrence
attracted serious attention.
At the place called Boz-yaka nine persons, and at Seidi-
Keuy and its vicinity several Mussulmans whose exact number
has not yet been ascertained, were massacred and their remains
left for several days without burial. No Mussulman dared to
The Colonel Suleiman Fethy Bey, president of the rec-
ruiting Commission of the 4th Army Corps, the Vice-Major
Nedjati as well as Thasin Redjeb Bey, proprietor of the
newspaper Houkoukou-Becher (The Rights of Man) who was
cut to pieces on the quay itself are the principal martyrs of
note known to us. Amongst the killed there are many others
of our co-religionists whose identity has not yet been estab-
lished. There are besides many who were killed by stray bullets.
I should fail in my duty if I did not inf orm you of a regret-
table observation that I made in the course of these events.
As I have already said, all these crimes and offences were
perpetrated in broad day-light under the eyes of thousands
of foreigners of the diplomatic and military representatives
of the Entente The Amarican officers rode about on horseback
all over the town, and were like many others eye-withnesses
of all the ignoble acts of which these people were guilty. I
regret to state that not even by a gesture did they do anything
to prevent them.
The 6th. June 1919.
Report of the Turksh Military Commission at
Smyrna addressed to the Ministry of
War at Constantinople
I have the honour of communicating to you herewith a
summary of the regrettable events of Smyrna :
1. A violent fusillade having been directed by the Greek
troops landed at Smyrna, against the fagade of the barracks,
the Turkish officers and soldiers who had assembled there
according to the instructions of Admiral Calthrop, took refuge
in the passages and shltered parts of the barracks. After
numerous difficulties, to prove that they had no intention of
defending themselves, all the officers of the army corps were
led in a convoy to the Greek transport "Patris". During the
walk which we were obliged to take along the quay, pursued
by the hoots and jeers of the Greek populace, many officers
and soldiers were killed or wounded by shots fired by Greek
soldiers and civilians, as the commandant of the Army-Corps
has informed Your Excellency in detail.
The same day more than seven hundred civilians, tra-
desman and others, who had been arrested by the Greek mili-
tary authorities in different quarters of Smyrna, either in
the streets or in the hotels, inns or shops, were also brought
on board the same ship and imprisoned in the hold.
The Commandant AH Nadir Pacha, his chief of staff, the
Major Abdul Hamid Bey, the Commandant of the 56th division
Hussein Bey and the Lieutenant Enver Bey, the Commandant's
officer of Commissariat, were released at six o'clock in the
n. The next day the Greek Colonial Zafirion, Commandant
of the Hellenic troops of occupation came on board the "Patris"
and asked to speak with one of the imprisoned officers in order \
to inquire into the incident which had taken place the day \
before; I volunteered to present myself to him. Here is the ;
summary of our conversation : : :
1. "After having received me very courteously, he told
me that the chief cause of the incident had been that we had
fired from the barracks with the intention of defending it,
upon the Greek companies advancing in marching order and
that the soldier on the right wing of the first company was
mortally wounded. He said that the bravery of the Turkish
army was well known, and that during the Balkan-war having
been continually in contact with it, he had appreciated its
fighting value and its virtues and made me a heap of comp-
liments on this subject. He said next that he had occupied
Smyrna on the decision of the Powers of the Entente and that
the Greeks and the Mussulmans ought by their respective
situations to live on brotherly terms whether in Greece or in
Turkey; he added that he sincerely regretted the incidents
that had taken place and that he was very much affected
"I then replied, that the commandant of the army corps
had received the night before the notice of Admiral Calthrop
and that he had immediately informed the subaltern authori-
ties of it : that he had ordered the battalion (Bat. 2. Regiment
133) which was at Pounta and all the officers then in Smyrna
to assemble at the barracks by 5 o'clock in the morning and
at the same tune, had taken measures to prevent the occur-
rences of any incidents.
"We saw indeed, said I, that a battalion of evzones ad-
vanced from the direction of the landing-place of the Hellenic
troops, and that the three companies of this battalion had
already passed the barracks and turning round it, had even
i taken the street of the tramway leading to Kokar-Yali; the
;head of this detachment had already reached the Banque
Agricole when a shot went off from the direction of the Greek
*$ crowd massed opposite the Konak and the barracks, fired by
fig an unknown, who surely could only be a Greek. The companies
11^ which followed this detachment immediately spread out in
J the rear, and having taken up a position near the Park, opened
|f a steady fire on the barracks. In consequence, if you say the
i^ van-guard of the battalion advancing towards the barracks
!||had been fired upon, the three companies of this battalion
^5 would not have turned round it to take the tranmway road.
9On the contrary the first company exposed would have taken
up position and opened fire.
2. Admitting that the occupants of the barracks had
si made use of their arms to defend it, their bullets should have
!S left traces in the Park where your soldiers had taken up their
3. The Turkish officers, setting aside their military tech-
finical instruction, have acquired during these five years of
Hwar, a great experience in innumerable combats on the various
fronts. Can one believe that any Turkish officer would attempt
la such an illogical and mad adventure as to defend the barracks
H built near the sea, against a force of twelve thousand men,
jfi having their armaments, munitions and equipment complete?
All the more that an Entente fleet was in the port of
|1 Smyrna precisely to support the Hellenic forces advancing
|H towards the barracks and ready to second them. It is very
I natural that under these conditions no Turkish officer should
sever have dreamt of defending the barracks. We also regret
these events and are as much affected by them as you can
j be; considering especially that the other allied detachments
which occupied the fortified regions of the town the day before
I effected their landing quietly whereas the occupation of
i Smyrna by the Greek troops was followed by these incidents.
"I thank you for your kind remarks respecting the Tur-
kish army, I said to him. We also, during the different cam-
paigns in which we had occasion to come in contact with the
Greek army, had the opportunity of appreciating the moral
and humanitarian merits of its officers and soldiers; we were
all convinced of its quality, as a civilised army. Therefore we
were painfully surprised at the inhuman and unworthy con-
duct of your officers and soldiers towards ours, brought yes-
terday, surrounded by bayonets, from the barracks to this
ship. The Turkish officers while deploring that the Hellenic
authorities should have let themselves go to such excesses,
trust that you will not fail to repair immediately this incorrec-
With these words I left the Commandant of the Hellenic
army of occupation. Having been again summoned later on.
I went to him once more on board a small tug sent specially to
the "Patris" to bring me. Our second conversation turned
solely on the liberation of the officers and soldiers detained
on board the "Patris". The mode of their liberation was thus
decided and I was able to insure the transfer to the barracks
by a tug which was to be sent the next day for all the officers
and soldiers. So that four days after the incidents of Smyrna
the officers could be transfered to the barracks and those
who were married could go home.
All the safes belonging to the army corps or to the contin-
gents and different services of the army corps which were
in the barracks, having been ransacked and their contents
rifled and moreover the money, watches, and other valuables
which the officers had on them having been stolen by the
Greek soldiers at the moment of their imprisonment, the Turk-
ish officers, married or not, found themselves in a state of
complete destitution. Consequently we were obliged to dist-
ribute among them, for their most pressing needs, a certain
sum that the army corps possessed at the Bank.
The third day after their transfer, the officers who were
obliged to report themselves at the Greek barracks every day,
were suddenly prevented by the Greek soldiers from coming
out once they had gone in. All who heard this news would
not come to the barracks any more. They were sought out,
arrested and brought by force to the Greek military authorities,
and a second day of insults was thus imposed on the Turkish
Meanwhile I had another personal interview with the com-
mandant of the occupying forces. It was decided that the
unmarried officers and soldiers should be sent to Moudania
on board Greek transport, and that five days should be given
to the married ones to prepare their departure for the same
destination. This was carried out. The families of the officers
martyrized during the Smyrna incidents were also aided by
us in a private manner.
m. The commission left at Smyrna for the services of
the army corps is composed of three persons, but owing to the
overwhelming amount of work it is necessary to increase the
number. Unfortunately all our applications to the Greek com-
mandant on this subject remained without effect. Our Com-
mission has many difficulties to contend with in the accom-
plishment of its task. Amongst others it is impossible for us
to put our hands on the stores of provisions and of equipments
as well as on the industrial and other institutions of the army
corps. We have made serious applications to the Greek autho-
rities by the intermedium of the English, for the handing
over of these stores and institutions. We have only been able
to obtain in this manner those which were in the barracks
itself. We managed thus, under the superintendence of the
English, to distribute a few provisions to the families of the
All the official registers, the account-books and other
documents were ransacked, destroyed and burnt by the Greek
soldiers when these incidents took place. I try to collect at least
the remains of them. I shall sent you shortly the list of all
that had been pillaged, destroyed or stolen by the Greeks.
IV. A detailed list of the sums stolen from the safes has
been handed to the allied representatives, to the Governor of
Smyrna and to the Greek Commandant. Another list of all the
money and objects stolen from the officers by the Greek sol-
diers has also been remitted to the allied representatives. The
animals belonging to the contingents of cavalry and artillery
of the army corps were collected by the Greeks in the court
of the barracks and were nearly dying of starvation. Steps
have been taken for their maintenance.
The list of robberies performed by the Greeks is sent you
Kindly accept etc...
(signed) Lientenant Colonel Suleyman FEHMY,
Chief of Commissariat of the XVUth Corps.
Summary of the enclosed list.
The Greeks have pillaged 20 safes belonging to the dif-
ferent services of vthe army corps. Have been noted :
Piastres 5.809.728.15 in receipts,
17.240.093.25 in bank notes,
17.269.20 in copper money,
16.605. in silver money,
59.027.20 in gold.
That is in all, money to the value of 23 millions, 142 thou-
sand 690 piasters and a quarter. Which amounts in round figu-
res to 5 millions 250 thousand francs.
Extracts from the report of a delegate of the
The day of the occupation, the Greek soldiers after having
wounded and killed two unfortunate women in front of the
barracks drove into the Government Buildings eight hundred
functionaries and Turkish inhabitants of the town. Then they
put them in ranks and marched them though the town, loading
them with blows and insults and forcing them to shout "Long
live Venizelos". Those who refused to do so were killed on the
spot. Amongst the number they noticed that Colonel Suleiman
Fethi Bey, head of the military division of the IXthe Army
Corps refrained from shouting. They reported the -order to
him and on his refusal to obey pierced and cut him to pieces
with their bayonets, on the quay before thousands of spec-
tators. During the march they took the purses, watches and
other valuables of all the Turks who made up the sad processi-
on. All these people were imprisoned in the building of the
Exchange. The number of Turks arrested on the most futile
pretexts the firts day of the occupation amounted to 26.000
The day of the occupation a sergeant and four Turkish
soldiers wearing the armlet of the Red Crescent were arrested
by the Greek soldiers. Dragged before the great building of the
Oriental Carpet, they were pierced from behind with bayonets
and killed under the eyes of hundreds of foreigners massed
in the streets and at the windows. The sergeant is a Turkish
chemist well known in the town. This murder is recorded in
the report sent to his Government by the English Colonel
Lymping, who went himself to the house of the poor victimized
chemist and gave 50 Turkish pounds to his family and children.
At the time of the massacre of the Turks at Menemen
by the Greeks, the English Colonel Smith was going from
Constantinople to Smyrna. Having heard the outeries, he got
out of the train and accompanied by two English soldiers went
into the town; he arrived just in time to see the Greeks in the
act of massacring. The Greeks pretended that a rising of the
population had obliged them to act thus; but none in the
town was armed, except the four gendarmes and the governor
whose bodies were lying in front of the government building.
The Greeks had two whole battalions against these four armed
gendarmes. The reports of the international inquiry commission
and of the American doctors confirm this fact. They only
found eleven wounded to treat as against 759 Turkish corpses
and they did not scruple to call the Greeks' attention to this
The day of the occupation about fifteen Greek ruffians
and soldiers penetrated into the house of the former secretary
general of the province and violated one after the other his
wife and his two daughters. The same disaster overtook the
former commandant of the port Sinan Bey.
, If personages so highly placed suffered such treatment
one can easily imagine what was the lot of persons of less
One hears frequently at Smyrna the inedited accounts of
numerous similarly ignominious actions.
The Mussulman Defence League (33, Palace Street,
Westminster) forwards to the Ottoman League by the
intermedium of the Anglo-Ottoman Society of
London, the following letter from a British
officer who was witness of the events in Smyrna.
"Smyrna, May 21st, 1919.
"I am writing to you about affairs in Turkey. I hope you
may be able to get friends in the House to ask questions about
the perfectly scandalous happening at Smyrna when the Greek
troops landed. I arrived at Smyrna the following day, and had
plenty of evidence, both English and Turkish, of what had
been going on.
"The Turkish authorities issued a General Order the day
before landing instructing all officials to see no resistance was
offered, and troops and officers were ordered to be at certain
barracks at a certain time, which was also named for handing
9ver G. H. Q.
"The Order seems to have been obeyed, but the Greek
troops broke into some of the places where Turkish officers
were gathered and shot down all who refused to cry Zeto Ve-
nizelos. I am told that between 200 and 300 officials were
killed, but am not able to substantiate the statemant as to
"Officers were stripped of their uniforms by Greek sol-
diers and left in their shirts and pants. Their boots the soldiers
put on themselves. The Vali was dragged along the quay with
his hands up and carried prisoner on board a Greek ship. His
fez was taken off and trampled under foot. 2 His wife (a pur-
dah lady) was hurt and his house looted. The Chief of the
Turkish Staff was bayoneted in the face and thrown into the
hold of a Greek cattle ship, among the aminals. 3 The senior
doctor of the Turkish Army Corps was murdered and on Mon-
day last the body had not been found. 4 The Chief of the Artil-
lery was also murdered his brother, a young doctor, was
robbed of everything, even to his wedding ring; he showed
me the mark made to get it off, and said in some cases fingers
had been cut to remove rings. 5 His wife, though a Russion,
was robbed of everything too.
1 The Bureau is in possession of a list, which though incomplete con-
tains the names of nearly a hundred superior officers and others. The Turkish
military authorities not having the means at present of making inquiries on the
spot, the names of many officers who were at Smyrna on garrison duty or on
leave and who were assassinated by the Greeks do not figure on the list.
Similarly the Police and Gendarmerie agents and officers especially marked
down by these assasins are not quoted. The number of three hundred reported
in the letter of the English officer is thus below the reality.
2 The General AM Nadir Pacha, commanding the Turkish army corps un-
derwent the same treatment, without regard for his uniform or his rank. He
was struck by a Greek soldier in the open street. We particularly draw attention
to this fact. It denotes the degree of discipline and the chivalrous spirit of
3 Lieutenant-Colonel Abdul-Hamid Bey.
4 The doctor Lieutenant-Colonel Chukri Bey, His body attached to a stone
was thrown into the sea and only recovered twelve days later, that is after
the publication of the English officer's letter.
6 Several commandants of artillery were killed or disappeared. Probably
this letter refers to Major Mahomed Nedim Bey. commandant of the heavy
artillery and who was assassinated in a cowardly manner.
"A Turkish lieutenant-colonel, whom I met at the hos-
pital, told me he hadn't the price of a meal letf in the house
every stick of furniture had been taken his wife looted of
every scrap of jewellery she had on.
"These are only a few cases I saw myself everywhere
it has been the same. In the villages not only have the houses
been looted, but burnt and pulled down 6 In the better-class
houses, which were too solid to pull down, doors and windows
have been removed, and in some cases the roofs.
"What the Allied Fleet was doing to allow this sort of
thing to go on I don't understand; for the Greeks, both mili-
tary and civil, took a hand in it and it was not until they
were attacked that the Turks showed fight. The Greeks claim
that Smyrna is Greek as a matter of ^ fact, Christians are
in a majority here, but not Greek Christians. Of Ottoman
Greeks and Ottoman Turks there are more Ottoman Turks.
"In other places, such as Manissa, which I understand
Greeks are to occupy, four-fifths of the population is Moslem.
"There are a few purely Greek villages near Smyrna, but
the population as a whole is Moslem. Can nothing be done to
get a Commission of Inter-Allied Commissioners, who know
the country, sent to report on the population?
"If Mr. Wilson's idea of self-determination is to be applied
it should be applied to this country as to any other. The people
should be allowed to select their mandatory if it is consi-
dered absolutely necessary to separate them from Turkey.
"Also there are British and other foreign rights to be
considered in Smyrna. Under the system of capitulation and
extraterritorial rights enjoyed by foreigners in this country,
they have built up a very flourishing commercial community,
6 Whole villages were thus sacked or razed to the ground. At Biroun-
Abad, for instance, a charming suburb of Smyrna, inhabited by the English
Colony, most of the Turkish houses were pillaged under the eyes of the English.
Djouma Ovassi, in the neighourhood of Boudja, another suburb of Smyrna,
Gueuredje and many others were completely devasted.
of which some of the leading houses are British. Are we, who
spent muchblood and treasure hi the conquest of Turkey, to
allow our own nationals to be ruined by Greek misrule? It
is a known fact that in Greece itself British houses have been
unable to succeed.
"In Turkey taxation is light in Greece taxation simply
kills everything. Is it right that the commercial community
should be exploited for the benefit of Greece? Also what
about the Indian Army? What will the Moslem section of it
say when they learn that they and their friends have fought
and died to hand over a large number of their brother Moslems
to their bitterest foes and the most fanatical people who call
themselves Chistians? As I am serving I am not allowed to
write to the papers, and I have very few friends who know
or care anything about Turkey, and, of course, the country
is hi disgrace for her misdeeds. But still one would like to see
justice done, and if you have any friends who can do anything
to wake up public opinion do try and get them interested. It
certainly won't make for peace to leave this place in Greek
hands without a most stringent control of some sort."
From a British Officer.
Note from the League :
Theree questions were in fact put in the House of Com-
mons by the members Aubrey Herbert and Kenworthy hi reply
to which Mr. Harmsworth, under secretary of State at the
Foreign Office, recognised in principle the justice of the accu-
sations brought against the Greeks and promised to make an
It was in consequence of this declaration and the comp-
laints made by the Schikk ul Islam that an interallied inquiry
Commission was appointed to go and study the matter on the
spot; that the general Paroskevopoulos was recalled from
Smyrna and that superior Greek officers were condemned
before the Commission had even begun its work.
Note from the Bureau :
The commission in question having, after an impartial
inquiry, finished its work, presented its report to the Supreme
Council. In this report the interallied Commission affirms the
authenticity of the Turkish version and all the ignoble Greek
misdeeds and declaring the landing to be quite without reason
it begged the Supreme Council to order the evacuation of
M. Pierre Loti communicated to the Ottamon League the
following personal letter which he received from ona
of his comrades of the French Navy, referring
to the landing of the Greeks at Smyrna : he adds
that all the other French officers relate this incident
with the same indignation but that the censor
forbids its publication in France :
"On the 15th of May, at 7 h. 30 in the morning, the Greek
battle-ships Averoff and Limmos, followed by several trans-
port vessels anchored before Smyrna, and without any notice
of this strong measure having been given to the Ottoman
authorities, the Hellenic troops began to disembark, under
the command of the Colonel Zaphiriote. These troops were
composed of a regiment of evzones and of the 40th and 50th
An immense crowd had assembled on the quays. The
Metropolitan had thought it his duty to come and stir up the
enthusiasm of the ortodox populace by religious manifesta-
tions of a doubtful opportuness.
The Turks meanwhile had opposed no resistance to the
landing, their troops remaining shut up in the barracks. But
they had prepared long beforehand the little incident which
wasto permit "the proud conquerors" to give themselves up
with impunity to long premeditated cruelties upon the Mus-
sulman population. How could this desired incident fail to
The hired instigators were all at their posts, and to make
still more sure, the Hellenic Red Cross had armed the two
most ignoble bands of comitadjis in Macedonia, and these had
been transported to Asia-Minor by Greek tropedo-boats. It
is established by the reports of the different authorities that
the Greek brigands of Smyrna, who had come to welcome
the Hellenic forces and had encircled them, all carried revolvers
openly. Whether intentionally or accidentally a shot was
fired from their ranks, causing an indescribable panic among
the "proud conquerors" newly landed, the brave evzones
fleeing in all directions firing shots, which increased the di-
sorder. It was then that other Greek troops who followed the
first contingents opened fire against the undefended Turkish
barracks. In spite of all the signals that were made to them,
in spite of the white flag immediately hoisted, the Greeks
continued to fire on the Turkish officers disarmed the day
By dint of provocation and blustering they managed to
make the Turks lose patience ; a few shots fired or said to
have been fired from their ranks, gave the expected signal
for the massacre. The Greeks rushed upon the barracks whose
occupants were killed or wounded.
On the quays the Turkish women are unveiled, insulted.
The Greeks ery out to the Mussulmans : "I... thy prophet and
thy religion". The word "Nayeow" is frequently on the lips
of the Greks. They are obliged to take off their fez and trample
them under foot. If they refuse, they are thrown into the sea
or run through with bayonet.
In their blind fury, the Greeks massacre abount fifteen of
their compatriots who wear the Ottoman fez in their quality
of functionaries; they assassinate the French station-master,
two Italians and an English subject ete.
The Hellenic commander having decreed a state of siege,
murder and pillage are henceforth under the protection of
armed force. The 40th regiments hasten to imitate them.
The Turk are imprisoned in a body and their houses sacked.
But the Greek do not attack only the property of the Mus-
sulmans; they pillage the depot of the Ottoman Bank, the
storehouse of the French-Consulate etc.
They went so far as to give arms to the Palikares in other
words to the bandits who form the Greek populace of Smyrna.
They gave them to their wives too, and the latter used them
to outrage the corpses of the Turks, piled up at the Ottoman
The streets continue to be the scene of every crime and
cowardly deed imaginable.
An old Turkish Colonel, ill and quasi impotent, is encoun-
tered by the Palikares (taht is to say bravas); he is riddled
with bayonet wounds. At the gates of the town, three unarmed
gendarmes are driving home peaceably, quite unaware of what
is going on in Smyrna : they are massacred with every refine-
ment of cruelty.
In another place, an officer of our navy sees a Greek
patrol leading away an old man, a corporal striking him on
the head with the butt end of his gun.
"Why are you striking an old disarmed man like that?
he asked the corporal."
"Because he is a dangerous man. Arms were found in
"What arms?" '
It turned out that these arms consisted of 200 grammes
of small shot, 100 grammes of shooting powder and two empty
Sometimes, Mars must give place to Mercury. As patrols
were circulating in the streets, honest Greeks would offer to
guide them to the house of such and a dangerous man. whom
they would indicate. As this dangerous man, by some happy
chance, always turns out to be the credifor of his denouncer,
his account is soon settled.
Meanwhile the Turks who had been taken prisoners,
receive nothing to eat or drink. English officers going to visit
them, protest against this inhumanity. Alarmed the Greek
military authoreties allow the Turkish women to carry food to
the captives; when they present themselves with their provi-
sions, Greek youths jeer at them, unveil them and only let
them pass if they carry in their hands a paper flag with the
glorious colours of the Hellenes.
Such is the truth about the ambuscade of Smyrna, and
we hope that it will be brought to light in spite of all those
who gain by its being hidden under a bushel. The balance sheet
of the entry of the Greeks into Smyrna amounts to 300 Turks
dead and 600 wounded.
This is how the French papers relate this memorable day :
"The Greek troops landed at Smyrna in the midst of uni-
However the enthusiasm of the first moment beginning
to cool down the commander of the Hellenic, troops began to
wonder if in spite of the blind philhellenism of the Entente,
the affair of Smyrna might not revolt the public, if the latter
came to know what had taken place. So it thought it wise to
forestall its critics, and published an order blaming the con-
duct of "some vagabonds" to whom the Council of War would
see that justice was done. We are quite certain that these vaga-
bonds have nothing to fear either from the rope or the gallows,
richly as they have deserved them, and that on the contrary,
they will henceforth live honoured and free from care.
The events of Smyrna, wrote the Turkish journal "Hdissat"
on this subject, have shown that Greece is not only incapable
of undertaking a mandate over another country but that she
herself needs to be controlled".
If we wish to know the opinion of an Armenian who can
hardly be suspected of a great partiality for the Turks, this
is how he appreciates the exploits of the descendants of
"We have often been assassinated, says he naively but
never have the Turks treated us as the Greeks have treated
them and never have they insulted our beliefs in such a manner.
Let us leave the final word to the chief of one of the divi-
sions of the squadron, whose report concludes thus :
"The conduct of the Greeks was ignoble."
The Events of Magnesie.
To Their Excellencies the High Commissioners of
Grat Britain, of the United States of America,
of Italy and of France at Constantinople.
The atrocities of all kinds undergone daily by our fellow
citizens living in the Hellenic zone of occupation, reach a pitch
which ought to make the most blase shudder with indignation.
Upon the most absurd pretexts the Greek court-martials judge
and condemn to death numerous Turks. The abominations
which took place, when the Greek troops entered Manissa
(Magnesia), still continue worse than ever. Forcing functi-
onaries who are not blinded by any partiality naturally observe
these doings and make a note of them.
To give only a few examples of the crimes of the Greeks,
we shall cite the following facts.
M. Moustapha Bey, son of Chukri Bey, one of the notabi-
lities of Manissa, was assassinated in a cowardly manner, his
body was found outside the town.
M. Memmed Bey, flour merchant, met the same tragic end.
His body also was recovered at some distance from the town
Behlul Hassan, of Molla Chaban and his five companions
who were going to work in their vineyards were arrested and
beaten by Greek soldiers. After having undergone various
tortures the unfortunates were shut up in the underground
dungeon of the central police station of Osmanie at Manissa
and remained there, without bread or water for three days. The
Greeks wished to banish Behlul Hassan and his friends from
the occupied zone and send them to Panderma. But having
neither the physical strength nor the pecuniary means neces-
sary for this journey, they took refuge at Ak-Hissar; and
reported with tears in their eyes the odious treatment which
they had suffered from the Hellenes.
A notability, Mehmed Bey Bachzade, was severely beaten
and is still confined to bed.
The day of the perquisition of arms were also beaten
with incredible violence : M. Hussein Adanali Zade, notability
of Manissa, Kiamil Mufti Zade, notability, Ibrahim Mufti
Zadee deputy major, Bolghour Hussein, Kadri Ghiritli Zade.
This last grievously wounded in the head fainted. The
Greeks thinking him dead, turned out his pockets, stole his
money, (500 p. Tk. and besides sacked his house. Kadri Ghritli
Zade is now undergoing treatment at the hospital of Smyrna.
We add to the present letter a list containing the names
of other notabilities and intellectuals of the country who were
arrested without any plausible reason.
So many crimes committed, so many tortures inflicted
naturally exasperated in the highest degree the Mussulman
inhabitants of our commune. Nevertheless the latter, giving
proof of the noble character of the Turkish nation, preserve
a patience truly most wonderful. But it is to be feared that
the continuation of the Hellenic atrocities may overexcite
public opinion and finaly oblige the Mussulmans to abandon
their passive attitude. The responsibility of such a rising could
therefore only be imputed to the Greeks alone.
We protest then energetically and with indignation aga-
inst the doings of the Hellenic army which since its landing,
has not ceased a moment from perpetrating the most unheard
In the name of justice and humanity we adjure the Great
Powers to use their authority to order the evacuation of our
beloved country, that we could never bear to see submitted,
even temporarily, to foreign domination.
Follow 60 signatures...
All the mosques and religious institutions of Menissa, num-
bering about 150, have been violated by the Greek army, their
doors were forced in and their floors torn up, their carpets
stolen or soiled, their windows broken and their inside walls
defaced. The worst damaged mosques of the town are the
Servili mesdjid. Gune djami.
Tchatal djami. Dilchikar.
Kenzi djami. Dere mesdjid.
Mouradie. Nifli Zade.
Ak mesdjid. Hadjdja-djlar.
Ayvaz Pacha djami.
The convents Kenzi, and Kabak Hadje.
The schood of Theology Sinan and the cemetery Tehatal,
Kabristan, are violated, defiled and deteriorated.
Telegram from the Deputy-Governor of Ak-Hissar
dated 3rd July 1919.
In the night of the seventh instant, Halid Pacha and five
of his friends who were in a farm, were killed in a tragie
fashion by a detachment of Greek troops, reinforced by con-
siderable forces drawn from the neighbouring Greek villages.
The body of Halid Pacha had been severed in two, and bore
thirty-seven wounds inflicted with knives and bayonets, his
fingers had been cut off and his eyes put out. His friends
had their cars and noses cul off, and their eyes put out. The
goods found on the premises, as well as the implements had
been pillaged and the farm then set on fire. The bodies of
Halid Pacha and of his friends so tragically assasinated were
taken to the chief town of the Gaza to be buried. Besides this
event I have also to inform you that fifteen women of the
neighbourhood of Ghediz-Tchai who were going to then: work
were also assassinated and their bodies thrown into the river.
The Massacres of Bergamo
and of Menemen
Memorial upon events of Bergamo.
The Greek contingent advancing in the direction of Mene-
men occupied without resistance, on the 12th June, the town
of Bergamo and the overlooking heights.
The commandant of this small detachment having given
assurances that the Hellenic Government assumed the moral
and material responsibility for any losses and ill-treatment
which might be caused to the population, private persons as
well as functionaries continued to go about their business.
On the application of the local Government a Turkish
gendarme was attached to be the Greek military patrols
charged with the preservation of order in the town. Although
all went normally during the actual occupation, the Greek
soldiers, the officers setting the example, began from the first
days to perpetrate crimes, pillages, and assaults on Turkish
The day following the occupation, they killed Mehmed
Emm, mountar of the village of Tekely, half an hour's dis-
tance from Bergamo and carried off the cattle they found
in the village and in the neighbourhood of Bergamo; they
sequestered and took possession of all the cereals belonging
to the population and destroyed what they conld not take.
A patrol of Greek soldiers fell upo nthe farm of Touzdji Mo-
ustapha near the town and pillaged his furniture, carried off
his cattle and destroyed his crops. Near the town they killed,
riddling them with bayonets, four unfortunates whose identity
could not be established so terribly were they disfigured. Some
Greek soldiers arrested Abdurrahman Agha who was going
to his fields and extorted from him 180 Turkish pounds in
bank notes; 30 pounds in gold were stolen from one person
and the ring from another.
In the villages of Tcham-keuy and Sendel the women
were assaulted and all the cattle .belonging to the peasants
In presence pf these ignominies the population telegraphed
on the 15th. June to the representatives of the Entente at
Smyrna and demanded justice and protection. No reply was
'Then oppression and tyranny began to be exercised with
more force than ever. Bands of Greek brigands, who had
accompanied the troops or had landed at Ayazmend, Dikili
and elsewhere, began to pillage all the surrounding villages,
carried off all the animals or anything else they found and
them to Metelin.
Following on these events the population of Bergamo,
whose lives and honour were threatened, rose in a body and
in spite of inferior numbers and the precarious state of its
arms succeeded in driving out the Greek battalion, which
had to leave hurriedly in confusion. The glorious Hellenic sol-
diers then took revenge by massacring the innocent inhabi-
tants, by destroying the Turkish villages, on their line of
retreat. More than two thousand Mussulmans were thus assas-
The day after the Greek retreat from Bergamo a force of
four thousand bandits was landed from Metelin, at Dikili where .
it first killed several hundred Mussulmans; amongst others
the well known merchant Faik, the telegraph director Assim,
the stock-broker Ali and his son Halil, the Arnavoud Sadi ete.
This force marched on Bergamo pillaging, sacking, mas-
sacring all on its way. Thus the villages Kiriklar, Saghandji.
Sakkeuy, Kalarhga, Tcham-keuy, Aladjalar, Tekely, Sendel
were devastated to such a point that even their sites were
undiscoverable and all their inhabitants, even to the babies
in the cradles, were put to the sword.
The population of Bergamo, on their approach fled to
Soma; the old and infirm who could not leave in time were
massacred without pity. On entering the town the Greek ban-
dits set fire to it both ends, and then advanced towards Tou-
ranli setting fire on their way to the villages of Kachikdji and
Dundarly and massacring their inhabitants. They pillaged all
the depost, sheds, shops and other places and sent all the
objects to Metelin.
The Greek soldiers who occupied the caza of Bergamo
were led by their officers and committed all these offences
and crimes under their orders. Neither sex, age nor illness
could prevent their brutality Several Greeks violated a woman
of sixty five years with the sole object of dishonouring her,
while her grand daughter of twelve years succumbed with
pain under the same outrages from a swarm of brutes.
They bombarded from a distance villages that they had
not had the time to burn, and the Greek artillery had also
its share of glory in this ignoble brigandage. Amongst others
the villages of Achaghi Bey, Djengue, Djoumali, Keutsche-
Beyli, Youkary Bey and many others were destroyed in this
Thus the population of the seven communes and 183 villa-
ges of the caza to the number of 80.000 souls had to flee to
the rugged regions of the interior, to the mountains, where
in frightful distress they are now undergoing the most
This is what the civilising Hellenic occupation has cost
the caza of Bergamo..
_ 50 _
EXTRACTS FROM A REPORT
ADDRESSED TO THE COMMISSION OF INQUIRY
Some details concerning the Greek atrocities in the
surroundings of Bergamo and Aivalik.
First Occupation :
1. The first day of the occupation, half an hour after the
entry inlo Bergamo of the Greek forces, five cavalry and
twenty foot-soldiers sent to Sepalti immediately killed the
major Mehmed Emm and took possesion of all the live-stock
of the village.
2. The first day of the occupation likewise, Houloussi,
son of Kardji Mehmed who was in the Selimie cafe, was arres-
ted and taken before the commandant of the troops of occu-
pation. The corpse of this man was found the third day hi
front of the offices of the battalion. The head was severed
from the trunk and the eyes put out.
3. Kurd Hussein of the village of Achaghi Kiriklar was
killed for no reason and his home pillaged.
4. A'icha, wife of Ismail, inhabitant of Bergamo, as well
as one of her friends was outraged with violence.
5. Two little girls, refugees from Salonica, were violated
in a part of Bergamo called Pigmenie.
6. The second day of the occupation, in the plain of Arabli
situated in the neighbourhood of Bergamo, the Greek soldiers
pillaged the property of Touzdjou Moustapha Effendi, and
killed all the live-stock. They fired shots at the proprietor
but he was able to escape unhurt.
7. They destroyed the carriage of Ahmed Effendi, part-
ner of Hadji Niazi Effendi and killed his horses which were
burnt with the debris of the carriage.
8. Were killed for no reason. Djafer, son of the Weli of
the quarter of Tchakirlar : Kementeli Mehmed, Haireddin, son
of Ibrahim Ousla : Pacha Zade Ibrahim : hte shoemaker
Moustapha, native of Alaiye; the tailor Moustapha, native
of Kozak; Ali of the village of Okdjilar, Ibrahim, son Ali Effen-
di of the quarter Hadji Ilias, Hadji Mehmed of the quarter
of Atmadji and Aicha wife of Molla Hussein.
9. Were assasinated Hassan Oglou of the village of Kor-
kalli and Mehmed Djemel Ogolu of the village of Boz-Keuy.
10. The daughter of Ali Molla of Salihler was violated :
Gulsoum, wife of Moustapha, was killed after having been
11. Were killed for no reason : Alim Effendi, head of the
telegraph office of Bergamo and Hafiz Effendi, immam of the
mosque of Eumer Sultan.
SECOND OCCUPATION :
1. The first day of the occupation, at Dikili, Molla Meh-
med, son of Tekidj and eight of his friends were shot.
2. The same day in the village of Dogandji, Hadji Mehmed
Ali and ten of his friends were summoned to go to Bergamo in
order to be questioned by the Commandant. The were all killed
on the way in spite of the permit which had been granted
3. At Bergamo Hadji Ahmed, son of Dilsiz and his wife
were assasinated in their house and their corpses are there still.
4. Were butchered at Bergamo, Hafiz Raghib, son of Ma-
dan, his mother Gulsoum and his wife Zehra.
5. An old woman of fifty years, the mother of Hafiz Halid
lecturer of the mosque Yeni-Djami, was killed because she
6. Ibrahim Agho, major of the village of Kiriklar, was
summoned by the commandant to Bergamo where he was
7. Hadji Osman Effendi of the quarter of Fa'ika was
killed with his family.
8. They put out the eyes of Veli Effendi, former judge of
Soma and killed him there days later. Before his death his
daughter aged sixteen years was violated. This was because
he had complained to the English Inquiry Officer ofthe Greek
9. The Greek soldiers cut off the feet of Mehmed Ismail
and of his son Moustapha with a wav.
10. At the bridge of Nesil, in front of the brickfield, Salih,
son of Halil, was tied to a tree and shot.
11. Suleiman, son of Molla Hussein of the village of Boerler
was shot in front of the government Residency at three o'clock.
12. The Greek soldiers killed : Kodja Emin, of the village
of Korkalli; Hassan Ali Tchaouch, Halil, Akcham Oglou and
13. Ali, son of Salih, refugee of Salonica was killed on the
bridge of Kestelli at Bergamo. His sheep were seized.
14. The Greek forces carried off .Hadimli Emin Effendi,
his son Hafiz Hamdi, his wife Fatma, his brother Suleiman's
wife, his son Enver, his daughter Nazmie. Their fate is unk-
Villages destroyed :
Tcham-Keuy. Achaghi Kiriklar.
Aladjalar. Boz-Keuy partially.
The population which was not able to flee was either
burnt or shot by the Greek soldiers in attempting to escape.
The ruins will afford ocular proof to the honourable inquiry
commission if it travels through this district.
Properties set on fire and pillaged :
That of Eumer Agha, situated between Bergamo and Di-
kili; that of the Albanian Moustapha, that of Molla Ismail, of
Kodja Oba; that of Develi Ali, that of Esse Bey, that of Sar-
dar-Zade, that of Ibrahim Effendi, son of Hadji Molla, that
of Bektach Hussein Agha, that of Mahmoud Effendi were
entirely burnt with all the crops.
Atrocities committed in the neighbourhood of Kinik :
1. Was burnt to death, Kassab Oglou Himmet, of the
village of Hamzali.
2. Were killed by Greek cavalry at Kinik, Hussein, native
of Kara-Zeibeck, his wife and his two daughters.
3. Were killed at Kinik, Tirkali Suleiman and his family.
s 4. The wife of Kassim of the village of Buldjuik was outra-
ged, the daughter of Touzdjou Hafiz Halil was carried away.
5. At Tchengue a woman whose name has not 'been able to
be identified was outraged by twelve persons who also broke
one of her legs. She is now in the hospital of Soma. The French
and English officers who have visited this district saw her per-
sonally and took note of her statements.
These are only a very few facts of which we have been in-
formed. They are proved by the evidence of a great number of
people bearing witness upon oath. We have made a point of
reporting only those facts whose veracity has been categori-
cally established. However if the inquiry commission examines
them with justice and good-will it will judge from these
examples to what savage and blood-thirsty troops of occupa-
tion has been delivered the unfortunate Turkish population
which forms an overwhehning majority of 85 % in the vilayet
Continuation : To corroborate the inquiries we notice
also the information gathered from official reports.
19th June : The Greeks, retreating towards Dikili set fire
to the Mussulman village of Kiriklar.
19th. June : The property of Bektach, situated between
Dikili and Bergamo, was burnt by the enemy.
21st June : A regiment of Greek infantry occupied, after
a combat lasting from the 19th to the 20th June 1919, and set
fire to the villages and fields lying between Dikili and Ber-
21st June. It was proved from the interrogation of Eumer
Loutfi Effendi by the English Commandant Mr. Huthinson
that the villages of : Achaghi, Kiriklar, Kalarga, Tcham-Keuy,
Tepehii, Baba-Keuy, Ham-Zeli had been burned and that the
women of those villages had suffered outrages.
22nd June. We hear that, besides those who had emigrated
to Balifcessir and Smyrna, twenty thousand Mussulmans were
living in a state of complete destitution under trees and in
tents at Soma.
4th July : According to the declarations of the inhabitants
of the village of Hamza who emigrated on account of the at-
rocities, the enemy cavalry extorted money from the inhabi-
tants, at the tune of the occupation of the village.
10th. .July : The enemy partly burnt the villages of Dju-
mali and Tchengueli. At Tcheiugueli a woman was wounded in
two places. At Djumali an old man was killed and burnt, anot-
her old man was killed, a woman had her eyes put out. Two
days before the attack, :at Hamzali, an old man was killed and
two others wounded; these wounded are now being cared for
in the village of Boldja. These crimes were noted on the spot
at eleven o'clock this morning by the commandant of the re-
gion and the English investigating officers.
13th July : Yesterday at nine o'clock the quarters of the
refugees situated to the West of Bergamos, were burnt.
An Appeal to Justice from the Survivors of the Massacres
of Menemen forwarded to the Representatives of the Allied
Powers at Smyrna.
We address to your Excellency our protestation on the
sabject of the massacres perpetrated on Tuesday 17th instant
by the Hellenic troops and native Greeks upon the Mussulman
population of Menemen, and beg you to su'bmit it to the supe-
rior judgment of your Government whose protection we de-
On the 22nd of last May, the deputy Governor of the Caza
Kemal Bey had warned the population of the imminent occupa-
tion of Menemen by the Hellenic troops >and had exhorted us
to calm and tranquillity. This occupation was effected in the
most absolute calm. We even hastened to hand over our arms
spontaneously to the Hellenic commandant.
Uufortunately we were terribly deceived and our resigna-
tion was very differently rewarded. It is in f act affirmed that
the monstrous crime committed afterwards had been duly pre-
meditated as is proved by the arming of the native Greeks, and
by the special signs fixed to the walls of Turkish houses by
Greek Boy-Ccouts. One morning in the midst of the calm and
tranquil lity which had not ceased to reiign, a sudden fusillade
broke out in the town, killing hundreds of Turks, and woun-
ding many others. ^Scared, we took refuge in our houses; and
all that day, and all the following night, our houses were bro-
ken onto, pillaged and everyone even women and children put
to the sword. The Deputy-Governor Kemal 'Bey was assassi-
nated in his room in his night-shirt. He who had always reas-
sured the population was the first victim of the crime preme-
ditated by the Greek commandant and executed by his tools
The pretended attemp- at revolt is a pure invention and the
clearest proof is, that not a single Greek soldier or civilian had
even a scratch.
The following facts fully prove the premeditation of these
1. The eve of the crime the Turkish houses were searched
on pretext of looking for arms.
2. The Greek battalion retreating from 'Bergamo with-
drew to Deyirmen Dagh to hold council with the native Greek
3. The night preceding the crime the Konak of the Go-
vernment was occupied by a strong Greek detachment which
assassinated the Deputy-Governor and six gendarmes who
4. The Mussulman population did not use arms since no
Greelk, either civilian or soldier, was even wounded.
5. The use of explosive bullets as the subsequent inquiry
6. The insulting- behaviour of the Graeiks, who even as-
saulted the Greek Metropolitan (bishop) Monseigneur Nikola-
dis in the church itself, because he opposed the massacres of
the Turkish population.
7. The sign of the cross affixed to the shops and houses
of the non-Mussulmans on the eve of the events, which resul-
ted in the sacking of those belonging to Mussulmans.
8. The confession of the Greek merchant Anania who con-
fessed in the shop of Chukri Effendi and .before witnesses
that the young Greeks wished to massacre the Turks, but that
he and the Metropolitan opposed it.
9. The warning give by Saboundji Panayot to his Mus-
sulman friends that they would be massacred and that they
should escape as soon as possible.
10. The corpses of most of the Mussulmans were thrown
into the river Mermmus.
11. Many Turks were assassinated at Kizkapou and
12. A certain number of corpses were cremated in the
quarter Koughadji-Bachi and many others buried clandestinely
in different places to destroy the proofs of these savage deeds.
The instigator and organiser of those horrible crimes is
the Commandant in person of the Hellenic forces. We demand
before all the exemplary punishment of this monster.
Next we demand protection for our honour, our life and
our property exposed at every moment to the danger of these
bandits. If the civilised world will not recognize our right to
existence and to a life of security, we beg you to pronounce
our death sentence so that we may prepare for it. But we trust
that your Government and your nation will not permit the
continuation of such crimes.
Once more we invoke the aid and protection of the great
nations of Europe and of America. We beg them to spare us
after these painful events the horrors of guerrilla warfare
which will end by completely ruining this rich region.
Summary of the report of the Special Commission of Ju-
diciary Inquiry into the Events of Menemen.
Having been informed of the massacres and extortions
committed at Menemen we the undersigned Governor-General
Yzzet Bey, Public Prosecutor Hilmi, the Officer of Public
Health the Chief -Police Magistrate Salaheddin, the doctors
Djemal and Fikry Beys, the English Officers Captain Charns
and Lieutenant Lorimer and the medical delegates of the
English and Italian Consulates, went to Menemen on Tuesday
the 17th of June 1919 to carry out the inquiry into the events
which took place there.
Immediately on leaving the train after having remarked
in, a ditch close by several corpses in a state of putrefaction
amongst others those of the family of Arnavoud Salih, we
proceeded to the government house where, on the tiles and
flooring of several rooms, the bloodstains, resulting from the
assassination of the Governor Kemal Bey and of the Turkish
gendarmes, were plainly visible in spite of the attempts which
had been made to efface them. The bloodstained uniform of
one of the gendarmes was hanging in one room. The Greek
commandant of occupation, interrogated by the Commission,
stated that, the Greek troops had been fired upon and that
in the scuffle which followed the Governor Kemal 'Bey and
some other persons were killed by mistake, that pillaging had
taken place but that .the guilty persons were prosecuted and
brought before the Court Martial. After having taken note
of the Greek commandant's statements it was the turn of the
Mussulman notabilities amongst others the Mufti Ibrahim
Effendi, the mayor Suleiman Bey, Halil Habib, hadji Mous-
tapha, Abali Zade Kemal etc.
From the unanimous declaration of these notabilities,
questationed separately by the Commission, it stands out
clearly that the Mussulman population of Menemen gave a
perfectly correct reception to the Hellenic occupying corps
and that far from provoking them to the excesses, which
would have been reprehensible in any case, it remained abso-
lutely calm and tranquil. The Greek commandant's allegation
regarding the. siiottj fired on the Hellenic soldiers is denied
upon oath by all the witnesses without exception. Besides,
the arms which might have been in the hands of the Turks
had been collected and all the Mussulman houses had been
searched. The non-existence of Greek wounded, either civilian
or miliary, as against a thousand Turkish victims, confirms
the veracity of the evidence. The massacres, the destructions
and the extortions committed at Menemen by the Hellenic
soldiers and the native Greeks can only be imputed to a vile
spirit of vengeance and cupidity. It results indeed from the
inquiry that this coup-de-main, prepared long beforehand at
the instigation of unworthy passions, was opposed by the
Greek clergy, the Metropolitan and by M. M. Anania, Lava
and other welknowh Greeks of the town. They warned several
of their Turkish friends and opposed it as far as they could
even at the risk of their lives. But nothing could check the
rapacity of the populace aided and supported by the regular
This first point elucidated, the Commission investigated
the atrocities and iniquitous" crimes committed by these wret-
ches. Certain details were of such a horrible nature that the
members of the Commission felt revolted notwithstanding
that they had been prepared to hear of the most incredible
All sorts of people; women, girls, children down to babies,
more than a thousand persons were basely assassinated. Du-
ring the few hours of its stay at Menemen the Commission
was able to draw up a list, which though incomplete, contains
the names already of more than five hundred unfortunate
victims. The Hellenic agent having opposed a thorough inves-
tigation, and the exhumation of the hundreds upon hundreds
of corpses buried clandestinely by the Hellenic military aut-
horities, the identity of the other victims could not be estab-
lished on the spot the same day.
The number of killed and wounded would certainly have
been several times greater had it not been for the humane
intervention of two French officers who, arriving that day
at Menemen interposed energetically with the object of stop-
ping the massacres. These two brave Frenchmen, of whom all
the witnesses speak with the greatest gratitude behaved in a
truly admirable manner, going from place to place and chec-
king at every step these brutes, that bloodshed and carnage
had stirred up to the highest pitch of bestiality. They mana-
ged thus to save many persons and to send many others into
the zone of their own conscription. All the same there are
more than a thousand killed and several hundred wounded.
The Greeks to hide the proofs of their guilt, wanted to
destroy the corpses. But the number of the latter being too
great, for lack of time they piled them by tens into hastily
dug trenches, insufficiently covered with earth. Most of these
trenches were to be seen and the Commission took note of
The massacres were not confined to the town. They exten-
ded also to the surroundings, to the fields, the mills, the farms
where another thousand of victims may be counted. All the
buildings outside the town, as well as several hundreds of
houses in the town itself, were pillaged, sacked or destroyed.
This is what the Greeks themselves while admitting, do not
succed in justifying in spite of their zeal in explaining the
events in their own fashion.
Telegram from the Mudir of Ayazmend dated 23rd July
As it appears also from the information furnished by the
commandant of the region of Aivalik to the competent authori-
ties, on the 7th instant, at the time when I was at Pishaya on
official business, a band of four or five hundred Hellenic hor-
semen came to the village of Salihler which had been evacu-
ated by the inhabitants the same morning. After having attac-
ked this village, they killed Tirtil Hussni, son of Selim and
forced to flight by f king on them about fifteen persons who
had not emigrated. Then they occupied the chief town of the
Nakie with considerable forces.
The following villages of Bergamo one of the richest and
most prosperous regions in the world are completely burnt and
destroyed by Greek hordes :
Report to the Minister of Justice addressed by the Public-
Prosecutor of Tire, the 8th July 1919.
I inform you herewith of the manner in which the Greek
troops occupied the Caza of Tire, in the province of Aidin, and
of the events which took place :
The Gaza of Tire was occupied on Thursday 29th May
1919 by the soldiers evzones, under the command of Captain
Alexandros and accompanied by armed Greeks of the Cazas
of Tire and Baidir. On the 31st May 1919 the Greeks on their
way to Eudemich to occupy it, encountered, near the village
of Hadji Ilias, situated four hours from Tire and in the Gaza of
Eudemich, at a place called Zindjirli-Eouyou, the "Zeibecks"
of the Gaza of Eudemich. Then they killed in an extremely
tragic manner, four Mussulmans of the Gaza of Tire, who
were employed in agricultural work in the plain and took pos-
session of the cattle and property of the population of Hadji-
Ilias. The Greeks of Tire and of Baindir took part in these
v The 2nd of June 1919 the Hellenic troops of occupation
having announced that the population was to hand over its
arms, and the deputy governor having published separate
intimations, the population of the town and of the villages
was disarmed. Ten days having elapsed, and under pretext of
an encounter with another band of "Zeibecks" in a place situ-
ated eight hours from Tire, outside the commune of Erbeyli
of the Sandjak of Aidin, acts of incendiarism, pillage and
massacre occurred in several villages of the commune of Kara-
Pounar whose names have not been able to be determined.
On the 22nd of June 1919 early in the morning, the seat
of government and the gendarmerie station were invested by
Greek troops armed and provided with machine guns; the
Mussulman quarters of the town were strictly watched. A
search was made for arms and though none wore found the
Mussulman population and the notabilities of the country
were dragged from their houses, imprisoned in the recruiting
office and in the basement of the Greek school, situated in
the quarter, where they were beaten and tortured.
At tfiree o'clock in the afternoon and during there hours
while the deputy-governor Ahmed Dourmouch Bey with other
companions were in the gendarmerie bureau, the functionaries
and the gendarmes were prevented from going out. The Cadi,
the president of the court of justice and other functionaries
whose houses were at some distance from the government
buildings were also kept prisoners at home. The Mussulmans
whose name f ogured on the lists that the Greeks of the country
held in their hands were arrested by Hellenic soldiers. The
police magistrate of the Caza of Tire, Ahmed Hamdi Effendi,
was apprehended at the gendarmerie station, where he was
in company with us, by the soldiers armed with bayonets, and
one native Greek; on his return he declared to have been
heaped with insults and threatened with death.
The families of those who had been arrested applied to
the deputy governor and to me, to demand the liberation of
their husband, father and son. The deputy-governor at my
urgent request addressed himself to the commandant of the
troops of occupation, urging him to put a stop to this state
of things. But as fresh appeals, arrests and tortures continued,
and it was not in pur power to save the Mussulman population,
from the misfortune which had come upon them, as these
persecutions extended to the functionaries also, the aforesaid
police magistrate fled to Smyrna.
The commandant of the troops of occupation carried off
the arms destined for the guards of the gendarmerie, and
those found at the court of justice as proof of guilt. The atro- v
cities which continued rendering insecure the life, honour and
property of the functionaries as well as of the Mussulman
population, the former began to withdraw. (The native Greeks
had been armed with the weapons taken from the population.)
Murder, pillage, torture and incendiarism had reached a pitch
far exceeding the cruelties of the Inquisition. As I felt myself
incapable of assisting at such tragic spectacles, as the right
to live existed no longer in the occupied districts, I was obliged
to leave my post on the 29th of June 1919. I was able to take
refuge with great difficulty at Karassi, I submit the causes
of my departure to your appreciation and await your orders.
The Horrors of the Valley
of Meandre, Aidin, Nazilii Denizli.
Memorial on the Greek atrocities during the occupation
and evacuation of Aidin and of Nazilii.
1. In the evening of the 15th May 1919, the unexpected
news which reached Aidin by telegram of the occupation of
Smyrna by the Hellenic forces, caused a very lively emotion
among the Mussulman inhabitants. But the excitement reac-
hed a still higher pitch, when immediately afterwards tidings
came of the crimes committed by the Greeks upon the Turkish
population of the great Aegean port.
The commandant of the Hellenic troops announced in his
first proclamation that he would only occupy Smyrna and her
immediate surroundings, but made a point of the historic ties
which he made out to have existed between Greece and the
region of Smyrna for there thousand years! The second proc-
lamation however was addressed "to the population of the
The Turks of Aidin were not deceived as to the intentions
of the Hellenic Government and the consequences which could
not fail to follow. Fore-seeing the danger, they addressed
themselves to the Allied representatives and while protesting
against this arbitrary claim, declined beforehand all respon-
sibility for subsequent events so long as the authors of the
ignominies committed upon the Turkish population of Smyrna
and the neighbourhood had not been punished.
On the repeated assurances of the English military repre-
sentatives at Aidin, that the occupation had a purely military
and temporary signification and would be limited to the surro-
undings of Smyrna only, the population gave up all thought
of armed resistance to this unjust invasion.
2. On Monday 27th. of May the Greeks occupied Aidin
without any resistance. On the 4th. of June, they arrested at
the station of Balatdjik the profesor Ahmed Emin Bey, the
notability Kiamil Effendi, the lawyer Rechid and his brother
Assim, the notability Chefik Safi; Refik Cehevket and Omer
Lutfi Beys lawyers af Nazilli. They were accused "of not
desiring the presence of the Greeks at Aidin". These doings
alarmed the people indeed, but all the same they did not des-
pair of the justice of civilised Europe.
3. The following night, the tenth after the occupation,
six of the most respected notabilities who were going home,
were mortally beaten by a Greek officer. The same night and
the next day, Greek soldiers broke into Turkist houses, which
they pillaged, and violated the women they found there. From
that time, pillage, murder and assaults on the honour of fa-
milies continued worse than ever. The native Greeks outdid
the Greek soldiers in ignominy. An employe of the stock exc-
hange Nouri Effendi, Kavass Zade, Mehmed Effendi, his brot-
her Moustapha, Yuzbachi Zade Bahri, Hadji Ibrahim Effendi
Zade Yeyzi, Diri Zade Moustapha Effendi were beaten and
wounded; the mother and sister of Hafiz Mehmed Effendi of
Karadja Eurene and others were violated.
4. On Tuesday 3rd, of June the Greeks also occupied
Nazilli. On this occasion they forced the Turks, on pain of
death, to march past the photograph of Venizelos with bowed
5. Nazilli remained 17 days under the Greek occupation.
During this time they pillaged the Turkish houses, dishonoured
the women, arrested, beat, wounded many people. Under their
heel, the Mussulmans could not but resign themselves to their
6. On Tursday 19th at one o'clock in the morning they
suddenly evacuated Nazilli, taking away with them about forty
Turkish notabilities with handcuffed wrists, whom they
assassinated at some distance from the town.
7. On Saturday 21st of June the English officer Mr. Ho-
der accompanied by Abdurrahman Bey, governor of Aidin,
Hakki Bey, president of the Court of appeal, and by the nota-
bilities Izzet Bey, arrived at Nazilli. By a lucky chance the
Italian Commandant of Gendarmerie Mr. Carvissini was also
there. Together they made an inquiry into the Greek atrocities.
Besides the evidence of the Christians themselves, they could
see on their passage heaps of Turkish corpses torn to pieces
by Greek soldiers. The facts were so revolting that Mr. Hoder
could not help expressing publicly before a large audience at
the town Hall, his indignation at the unjustifiable ignominies
perpetrated by the Greek commandant and soldiers.
10. The Mussulman population expected to see these Hel-
lenic criminals punished. Quite on the contrary from the 21st
to the 30 th of June the Greeks gave free course to their
villainies, and the town of Aidin became the frightful theatre
of the most odious crimes that the 'annals of past eras have
ever registered. Fires, destruction of towns and villages, pe-
ople maltreated, mutilated, wounded, butchered, burnt alive,
torn to pieces, nothing was wanting. They massacred fifty
Turks at Kermendjik, butchered like cattle other six in the
train going to Aidin, throwing out their dead bodies all along
the railway line. They burnt all the villages of the region,
massacring their inhabitanas. Only a few of these poor terri-
fied peasants were able to save their lives by taking refuge
in the rugged mountains. At Aidin in the open street, they
stopped the peasants, showering blows on them, riddling them
with bayonets under the very eyes of the inhabitants. They
shut up the poor creatures in underground cellars without
air, light or food for several days. To these horrible deeds
are added the vialinies of native Greek bandits armed by Hel-
lenic authority. Safety no longer existed. The Turks closed
their shops, left their affairs, and each tried to take shelter
in his own house. A delegation sent to the Greek Commandant
obtained no reply. Then began an exodus in mass of the
11. Other signs also foretold the coming destuction of
Aidin .and the massacre of its inhabitants. A native Greek
shoemaker, Mihalaki, who was persona grata with the Hellenic
authorities said to Djanbaz Zade Ali Effendi on this subject
that "the Greek Government would perhaps evacuate Aidin,
but that those who would occupy it, would find not a man
living nor a house standing". Moreover, some other native
Greeks amongst them Dr. Harilaridis, Dr. Ourgandji-Oglou,
the merchant Theocharis repeated on all hands : "Ah, you
await the help of the Italians, you will see how you will be
punished". The Greeks having isolated Aidin, ordered the non-
musulmans, Jews, Armenians and others, to exchange their
fez (Turkish headdress) for hats. They declared that they
would accept no responsibility for the life of those who did
not comply with this order.
13. On Thursday the 26th of June, the Greek commandant
assembled the Turks in the court of the government buildings
and summoned them to hand over within 18 hours the six thou-
sand rifles which they should possess. "If a single one is mis-
sing, you will all be shot", he told them. And in a threatening
tone he added "the Greek occupation is not at all of a tem-
porary nature, it is the definitive annexation of Aidin to
Greece". The governor Abdurrahman Bey, promised him to
do all in his power to collect the arms that the population
might possess, but he drew the attention of the Hellenic com-
mandant to the massacres and systematic exactions which
continued, both in the town and in the villages, and observed
that the circulation of armed native Greeks and their constant
misdeeds were not likely to facilitate his taks. The Greek com-
mandant, without denying these crimes only said that his
resolution was taken and his order categorical.
13. On Friday the 27th of June, the ushers of the govern-
ment offices and the next day the governor Abdurrahman
Bey, the president of the Court of Appeal, the public prosecu-
tor, the notabilities Izzet, Hadji Ahmed Beys and the surveyor
of taxes Omer Bey, the Dr. Noury Bey and many other persons
were arrested. The dead bodies of most of them were found
some lays later in the mountains, but the fate of the other
unfortunates remains unknown to this day.
14. On the 29 th. of June the Greek commandant having
tried to encircle by surprise the national Turkish forces, con-
centrated to the south of Meandre ; a battle began. On Monday,
June 30th at 11 o'clock in the morning, after a combat of forty
hours, the national forces entered the town. The calvary of the
Turkish inhabitants of A'idin during these two days cannot be
described. The Greek soldiers, aided by the native Greeks set
fire to the Turkish quarters, shot with rifles and machine
guns, all the unfortunates, women, children, old men, who
tried to escape from the fire and who succumbed in the midst
of the flames. It was one way of getting rid of their corpses,
the irrefutable proof of their monstruous ignominy.
15. Hundreds of poor people took refuge in the French
Girl's School; four French officers of gendarmerie, the hono-
rary consul of France, Mr. Vasilaki, a native Greek, the sisters
of the Catholic School, as well as Mr. Hoder were eye-witnesses
of these incredible crimes.
16. In spite of the complicity and association of the native
Greeks in the perpetration of these crimes, the national forces
on retaking the town, did not attempt to avenge themselves on
these perfidious and murderous compatriots. On the contrary
they procured shelter for them in the towns not occupied by
the Greeks, as their own testimony proves.
perfidious and murderous compatriots. On the contrary they
procured shelter for them in the towns not occupied by the
Greeks, as their own testimony proves.
17. The president of the Tribunal Hakki Bey, the athor-
ney^general Chevket Bey and the notability Izzet Bey who had
been taken away by the Greeks, were assassinated by them,
to destroy the proofs that these unfortunates had been so ill-
advised as to colleet concerning the erimes of Nazilli and the
surrounding villages. But they were not the only witnesses,
and the English officer Mr. Hoder is also well informed about
them. The victims of the town of Aidin, number about 4400,
more than 4000 of whom are Mussulmans, and only there or
four hundred non Mussulmans. The material damage is valued
at more than 12 millions of Turkish pounds, that is more than
250 millions of francs.
We bring to the knowledge of the civilised world these
acts of atrocity and of barbarism. From Smyrna as far as Na-
zil'li all the towns, villages, hamlets are but a heap of ruins
and ashes. Most of them scarcely hide amongst their still
smoking debris, the carbonised corpses, Ibhe bleeding remains
of thousands, of tens of thousands of poor innocent people,
of women, of children, of old men sacrificed to the ferocity of
the Hellenic hordes. Hundreds of thousands of refugees still
more wretehed, are now wandering in the mountains without
shelter without resting-place, without food, morally and physi-
cally cast down, living proofs of the Greek crimes. And from
all this devastated region rises today a cry of terrible distress.
They appeal for aid and protection, but the dead as well as
the living demand one thing above all; justice.
Letter addressed by Chukri Bey, commandant of the na-
tional forces, to the commandant of the Italian contingents
of Tchine, to be forwarded to the Representatives of Italy, the
United States, England and France.
The Greeks, who have occupied Aidin and the surrounding
region, have begun after a short period of calm, to practise
with an unheard of savagery the policy of the extermination
of the Turkish element, with the object of being able to claim
and annex these countries the 95 % of whose population are
Turks and Mussulmans. The massacres, the abominable offen-
ces, the burning of whole villages and of Turkish quarters, all
these crimes perpetrated by the Greeks constitute a disgrace
for our era of civilisation. To have been the victims of such
odious acts what faults could possibly have 'been committed
by these women, these children, these poor innocent people
who were only gong about their own business ? They have been
fired upon with .bombs, rifles and machine guns. They have
been cast into burning houses and burnt alive; they have had
their eyes put out, their heads smashed, they have been
thrown into wells; Turkish travellers were taken out of the
trains, the women and the young girls were violated under the
eyes of their husbands and parents, the men assassinated in a
body; and following on this reign of terror, because of these
crimes and these massacres the mussulman population of
Seu'ke as far as AMin, stript of its belongings, suffering from
hunger and poverty, has had to take refuge in the Italian zone
to the south of the Meandre, while a part have taken refuge
in the mountains. Why this savagery? What Christian was
ever molested in these regions by the mussulman population
of Aidin that the latter should have deserved such odious
treatment? The few Greeks come from various directions and
established at Aidin and the neighbourhood from the best off
and happiest class of the population. This happiness, this we-
alth are they not the fruits of the good understanding with,
and benevolent assistance of the Turkish mass? Who could
deny this evidence?. Are the Turks creatures outside the pale
of humanity that they may not 'be defended against unjust
aggressions? We ask this of the conscience of humanity. I call
to witness the Italians, the French, the English who live at
Aidin and who always have been treated not as foreigners but
I exhort them to say if the Turkish villages have their
equals ^amongst their neighbours for calmness and gentleness
of .behaviour. A prey to perfidious attacks and to an ignoble
oppression, the Turlks to-day have naturally recourse to arms,
and are determined to defend their lives and their country
against the savage incursions of the Greeks.
In the name of the human conscience I beg you to take
action so that the question of Aidin may be studied from a hu-
manitarian point of view and that the population may be deli-
vered from the babarous regime of the Greek occupation; that
the inhabitants may regain their rights and their liberty. I pro-
pose also that the French, English and Italians established at
Aidin, the gendarmes, the French vice-Consul and the catholic
sisters should be asked to tell with what kindness the Greek
population was treated when the town was re-occupied by the
civilian forces fighting under my orders. The Greeks even
those who have personally taken an active part in the crimes
and offences of the Hellenic soldiery, had their lives protected
from the vengeance, justifiable indeed, of the Turkish popu-
lation so diabolically martyrized. The Greeks had even massac-
red infants hi the cradle. They thought it to their interest to
kill everyone they met.
I beg you to be so good as to inform the Great Powers of
the Entente that we pray them in the name of humanity to
restore calm and order to this coutry by putting an end to the
ignoble regime of Greek adventurers and by withdrawing the
Hellenic forces of occupation. Thus the return home will be
rendered possible to a numerous Turkish population which has
suffered the torments of hell.
I beg you Sir to accept etc.
Commandant of the National Forces
of the Region of Aidin.
Telegram dated 2nd July 1919 from the Governor of De-
I submit to you herewith the text of the telegram add-
ressed to the English Naval Attache at Constantinople by the
English Lieutenant Hoder who, being at Aidin during the
events, was witness of them :
"The situation at Aidin has become very critical. A Mus-
sulman and Christian population of ten thousand persons is
homeless. The Mussulmans have been very patient so far, and
have respected the English rights . I beg you to take immedi-
ate steps. Inform Sryrna of the facts.
Another Telegram from the same Governor sent in July
Continuation of yesterday's telegram. I present below a
textual copy of the telegram addressed by Mr. Hoder, who is
at Aidin, to the English naval commandant at Smyrna. In a
telegram addressed to... at Constantinople he begged the lat-
ter to communicate the affairs of Aidin to the naval comman-
dant of Smyrna.
"In consequence of the battle which took place between
the Hellenes and the Turkish civilians and which lasted from
the 28th to the 29 th July, the Hellenes have had to leave
Aidin.... More than half the town is burnt. Ten thousand per-
sons, Mussulmans and Christian are homeless. The Christians
are in safety. The government assures their tranquillity and
their alimentation But, I beg you, so that the life of the Chris-
tians and of the whole population may not foe endangered, to
forbid the return of the Greek troops to Aidin and the sur-
roundings. The Hellenes having done much harm to the Mus-
sulmans, the security of the Christians could no longer be
assured. To remove this fear from the Christians, I await your
Report of the Governor of Aidin.
In my quality of governor having remained at Aidin du-
ring the Hellenic occupation, I hereby report in what manner
the massacres of Aidin were prepared and carried out by the
Greek military authorities.
1. The Greeks from the first day exacted the handing
over of the arms of the Turkish population and proclaimed
that thouse who did not comply would be shot. With the arms
thus collected they armed the whole local Greek population.
2. They made the wearing of hats compulsory for all the
non-mussulmans, Greeks, Armenians and Jews. This measure
tended to avoid all error at the time of the massacres ; all those
wearing the fez (Turkish national headdress) were degigned
as sole victims.
3. They ordered the signboards over the Greek and Ar-
menian shops to be replaced by sign-boards in the Greek lan-
guage. This to prevent the molestation of the non-Turks when
the town was pillaged.
4. They cut the water pipes in the Turkish quarters to
prevent the extinction of the fires they intended to light.
5. They strictly forbade the Christians to protect or to
shelter a single Tur'.c. It was thus impossible for any Turk to
escape the general massacre that was premeditated.
6. Having thus taken the necessary measures, they only
awaited the propitious moment to perpetrate the horrible deed.
The approach of the Turkish forces when they made their
counter-offensive against the Greek advance towards the
'bridge of the Meandre was the expected signal. They first of
all set fire to the four corners of the Turkish quarters and by
machine guns, or armed Greek soldiers and civilians, posted
at the cornes of the streets, on high 'Duildings and minarets
they opened fire on the Turkish civilian population who terri-
fied tried to flee from the flames. The dead and wounded, who
fell thus in the streets were thrown back into their burning
dwellings and many poor people, old men, women, children of
tender years were burni alive.
7. When the fire approached my house we retired into
the neighbouring one with my family. Including women and
children we were twenty-five persons. An hour after sun-set,
the door was forced and about ten Greek soldiers and some
local Greek ruffians entered the house. After having robbed
and stripped all who were there they were going to carry off
four little girls under fourteen years of age. At the supplica-
tions and lamentations of 'these poor children and their pa-
rents they (began to insult us in Turkish in terms of an inc-
redible grossness. They then began to torture and massacre
those poor creatures. When they had already killed three wo-
men, two men and four little girls, I took the members of my
family and escaped by a door of communication into the
neighbouring house which had already caught fire. It was only
with the most terrible difificulty that we managed to save
ourselves. In the course of these events the Greeks robbed
me of nearly a thousand Turkish pounds, of which the greater
part belonged to my mother-in-law and other Turkish persons,
and of jewels to the value of more then (five hundred pounds.
It would take whole volumes to describe all the crimes
and offences committed by the Greeks. These champions of
civilisation gloried in the slaughter of children, in cutting off
ears, noses, hands, feet, in thrusting all kinds of things, into
the congenital organs of women and exposing them to the
mockery of their Greek fellow-countrymen.
Telegram sent from Tchineby, by the Commandant of the
"It is confirmed that the Hellenes after the departure of
the Lieutenant Velsagrand living in Aidin, made preparations
for the massacre of the population of the iSandjak, and espe-
cially of the town of Aidin. They began by secretly murdering
certain Musulmans under the apparent pretext of conveying
them to prison. This audacity continues and is increased, with
the participation of native Greeks, by such deeds as; penet-
rating at night into Mussulman house, outraging the women
and girls before killing them, at the same tune preventing by
means of sentries the Mussulman population from going out
of the houses. The Greeks ordered the non-Mussulmans, Ar-
menians and Israelites to leave off wearing the fez and to wear
hats, to mark their houses and shops in a manner to distin-
gudsh them from those of the Mussulmans. It appears that
this is with the object of preserving them from massacre. The
Mussulmans are ordered to igive up within twenty four hours,
six thousand fire-arms, and thouse who do not comply are
threatened with death. In different parts of the Mussulman
quarters are placed cans of petrol, 'guarded by Greek sentries.
A water pipe supplying the Mussulman quarters having been
destroyed these quarters are deprived of water. The Hellenic
attaok of the 28-6, 1919 against the Meandre bridge took place
for no reason. The Greeks who numbered four thousand and
possessed the materiel and moral superiority deliberately re-
tired towards the town and carried the battle into it. The na-
tional forces were scarcely at a kilometer's distance from the
town, when the Greeks set fire to the Mussulman quarters at
two or three points, and on the side from which the wind was
blowing. The innocent population trying to save its life by co-
ming out into the streets was shot down by rifle and machine
guns fire and by bombs; those who did not dare leave their
houses, fell a prey to the flames. All the Mussulmans would
have been killed in this manner, if the Hellenes, who were
fighting against us, had not been beaten by the Mussulman
population, who hastened to the rescue from all sides.
The crimes committed in tine villages are not included in
the details supplied :
1. The lives of the native Greek population and of forei-
gners are in safety. Greek men who assassinated Mussulman
women and children figure amongst them. As the trial of the
latter has become very difficult, immediate proceedings have
been taJken by the court martial commission of information.
2. The Greeks arrested and took away with them : the
governor of Ai'din : Abdurrahman Bey, the public-prosecutor,
the president of the court of justice, a notability Izzet Bey,
the officer of gendarmerie Mehmed Arif Bffendi, and other
persons who fell into then- hands, I am personally replacing
Telegram from the Deputy- Governor of Aidin
dated 22 July 1919.
According to inquiries made, the number of inhabitants
of Aidin and surroundings who have emigrated, 'been killed,
or whose fate is unknown is as follows :
Mussulman emigrants : thirteen thousand; non-mussul-
man emigrants; one thousand two hundred; Mussulmans kil-
led by the Greeks : 80.500 ; those whose fate is unknown : 1500.
AJbout 8000 emigrants are dispersed in the directions of Tehien,
Moughla, Milas, Kotchari, and about 6000 went to Yeni-Bazar,
iNazilli, Denizli or farther 'into, the interior of the country. The
population is 'in great distress. I solicit the speedy sending of
the aid, requested by my telegram of .the 19th July 1919, and
of a Red Crescent Mission.
Telegram of the 26 July 1919 sent by the Deputy-
Governor of Aidin.
Continuation of the Telegram of 8th July 1919.
After the Greek troops having crossed the Meandre from
the Tchine side, had set on fire the villages of Balta-Keuy,
Emir-Assi, Savran-Deressd and (Bech-Pounar, pillaged the fur-
niture, carried off the cattle, the Italian troops occupied the
bridge and assured the retreat of the Greek troops. The impo-
tent and the old people and children who could not leave Aidin
in tune were killed, and the property of those who had fled
precipitately taking nothing with them, was completely pilla-
ged. Young girls were assassinated in the presence of the com-
mandants of the Italian troops who had gone as negotiators.
A great number of corpses of innocent Mussulman were seen
along the road. From Ayaslouk as far as Aidin and Nazilli the
following villages were set enirely on fire :
Karapounar (town). Tomalan.
Guermen-djik (chief -town of the Nakie of Aine-Abad).
The inhabitants were massacred, their goods pillaged, and
their cattle stolen. The plain of the town of Aidin surrounded
by gardens and fig-trees is devastated : all the gardens,
all the houses and their inhabitants have been burned.
Fresh fires are seen at Aidin. From 'Omourlou to the Meandre
the population left alive which had assembled at Omourlou
have made a rampart of their bodies against the cannons, guns,
machine-guns, bombs of the Hellenes and do not cease to fight.
From time to time the Greeks who attack are repulsed as far
as Aidin with losses. We have no news of the other villages
of the plain and of the mountains, nor of the atrocities that
their inhabitants undergo. More than fifty housand persons
having received no favourable reply to the reports presented,
destitute of everything necessary for human life, condemned
to perish, await from the 'Civilised world and from the Otto-
man government the expected aid. They are enabled to exist
thanks to what is sent them by the governor of Mougla, and
the honourable population of this Sandjak, though it is not
sufficient. The side are cared for in the hospital and in the
military hospital of the Brigade which already existed, but
which wants medicaments.
Delegations arrive from Nazilli and from Yeni^Bazar to
beg the Italian commandant that the Hellenic cruelties may
not penetrate into their country. How long will this tyranny
last? The Wilsonien principles, the resolutions of the peace
conference and of the league of nations will they be applied to
tihe decomposed corpses of the innocent and persecuted inha-
bitants of Aidin who were burnt with their houses? I beg to
inform you, that I am awaiting speedy, good and sympathising
news from the Ottoman Government and that the communi-
cations of the -ministry may be made via Denizli, Tavas and
Telegram sent from Tchine by Nouroullah Bey
Head-Book-Keeper of Aidin.
The crimes and atrocities, such as the. assassination (di-
rectly by the Hellenes of by organised bands of native
Greeks) of a great number of innocent Mussulmans and even
of children, the violations, the massacres of Mussulmans, the
intentional setting fire to the Mussulman quarters will be re-
garded by the civilised world as a form of barbarism. The bom-
bardment from the minarets and other high places of the
town, the fire which resulted from it, and the fires lighted
without reason behind the Mussulman quarters have destroyed
more than the half of the town. The Mussulmans, children and
women, who came out of their houses to escape the flames
were killed by the machine-guns and those who were afraid
to come out were burnt with their houses. The Siame acts of
barbarism were performed behind the town, so that the whole
region is only a heap of ruins. The high functionaries including
the governor Abdurrahman Bey the president of the Criminal
Court, the Prosecutor and a great number of notabilities di-
sappeared by the hand of the Hellenes. All the functionaries
are in distress. They were obliged to leave Aidin and come to
Tchine. At present there exists at Aidin neither government
representative nor population. As the Greeks have also occu-
pied the territory beween Nazilli and Aidin, the atrocities are
just as common in these regions. Everywhere in the plain, on
the mountains and in the houses the Mussulmans have had to
undergo the same infamies and massacres. Those who were
able to escape have retired to the mountains and to the south
of the Meandre. These people are in a miserable state and
there is no possibility of bringing them back to the regions
occupied by the Greeks, nor of securing the safety of their
lives. There is a pressing need for provisions, medicaments
and tents. It is impossible to procure them on the spot. We
urgently beg that help may be speedily sent, that the popula-
tion may be restored to its country, and that the Greek occu-
pation may be brought to an end.
When the fatigue resulting from having been obliged to
come on foot from Aidin to Tchine, and the horror with which
my heart was filled at the sight of so much infamy and barba-
rism have subsided, and as long as I stay here, I shall keep
you informed of the (atrocities whlich take place.
Report of Mr. Stamath, Greek Ottoman Judge
at the Law-Courts of Aidin.
Entry of the troops of occupation into Smyrna, cause of
their advance towards the interior, and the manner in which
this advance .was carried out, atrocities committed.
June 8th. 1918.
Giving as pretext the encounter which had taken place
in the vicinity of the 'government buildings, and which was
caused by the entry of the Greeks 'into Smyrna, in a manner
that none could have imagined, .the latter had insulted and
(killed a great number of officers and soldiers who, it was said,
had made use of their arms. This news having spread to the
interior of the country a national desire to prevent the Greeks
from penetrating any farther had awakened amongst the po-
pulation of Aidin which, amongst all the other Sandjaks is dis-
tinguished for its bravery. But letters sent by influential nota-
bilities, who had gone to Smyrna to get information as to the
events and had there endured many insults and impertinences,
had caused this desire, which would doubtless have prevented
the atrocities which took place later, to remain inactive. From
fear of a repetition of the painful events of Smyrna and as
result of the numerous consultations between Greek and Mus-
sulman notabilities, it was agreed that a delegation should go
to meet any Greek troops that might come to Aidin, and that
they should on no account be attacked. This is what took place.
The native Greeks after the arrival of the Hellenes at Smyrna
having addressed repeated telegrams to the representatives
of the Powers of the Entente and of Greece, to tell them that
the lives of the Christians were threatened by a supposed pro-
ject of massacre organised by the Mussulmans, a delegation
having even been sent with this purpose, the Greek troops
without being attacked by the Mussulmans and unprovided
with food hastened to penetrate into Aidin one evening and a
few days later into Nazilli. They fed themselves for one or two
days with bread which they procured at the houses of the
Greeks and with the cattle of the later which they slaughtered.
The Hellenes, with the object of conciliating themselves with
the Turkish race, of suppressing the misunderstanding and
mistrust that existed, behaved correctly for five or six days.
But certain soldiers giving way to their natural instincts, at-
tacked some of the Mussulman houses, incited and led on by
native Gredks, the Hellenes arrested some respected notabili-
ties of the country with the vile purpose of satisfying their
revenge. These regrettable deeds and others naturally ange-
red the mussulman population which again raised complaints.
Lofty desires to defend the country and the rights of the pe-
ople by arms were reawakened. At this moment the Greek
commandant declared that for military reasons the troops
that were at Nazillli, and even if need toe those at Aidin would
retire to Smyrna, in order to avoid the events which had taken
place at Bergamo. Other declarations coming from the circle
of the commandant alarmed the native Greeks. Thereupon it
was heard in town that the Greeks having left Nazilli by night,
were retiring upon AMin, killing a great number of people by
shots fired right and left, and setting fire to -houses. It was
even heard that some notabilities of Nazilli carried off as pri-
soners had been massacred. Public opinion was extremely mo-
ved by this. At the same time bands, which had 'been organi-
sed, and formed themselves in all parts and whose numbers
were increasing, as the Greek commandment had been infor-
med, were approaching, the town : encounter lasting a few
hours had taken place once or twice in the neighbourhood of
Tel'li-dede. Meinwhile the Hellenes asserting that bands were
hidden in the houses and had fired upon them, set fire to the
neighbouring villages. Those who were returning from the
battle and especially those inhuman barbarians, those blood-
thirsty mountaineers and nomads bearing the name of Evzo-
nes, killed or inflicted injuries worse than death on all whom
they met wearing the fez and whom they called "Turks", pil-
laged villages, carrying off the cattle, horses aU the animals
and all the property which they sold in town for next to not-
hing. I feel obliged to relate the following fact as a living proof
of their fanaticism. The evening of the encounter five Greek
soldiers with fixed bayonets came to me and paper in hand,
told me that they had heard from a sure source that a great
number of Turks were hidden in my house. They told me I
should be bayoneted without mercy if a single one were dis-
covered. My house having been searched several times, I fo-
und myself dbliged to take refuge in the cellar of my neigh-
tbour Ohannes Effendi, as the servant of the latter, Maria the
wife of the shoemaker Panali and all the inhabitants of the
house can bear witness.
Another f act :
I was invited by the governor Abdurrahman Bey to trans-
late the speech of the Greek commandant which had to be read
in front of the government buildings. With the sole intention
of not wounding the feelings of my Mussulman compatriots,
I translated the passage written in large characters and sa-
ying : "The Hellenic troops have come to Aidin with the con-
sent of the Powers of the Entente and will remain there per-
manently" by "The Hellenic troops have come to Aidin and
will remain there only temporarily". Two Greeks standing be-
side me said : "No the translation is false, pay attention to
that point". This excited the Greeik element and they began
to show me ill-feeling. I was summoned to the office of the
Gree'k commandant's aide de camp, where I was insulted, while
they declared to me "You are for the Turks, you are not with
us. Why 'did you translate permanently by temporarily? Take
care". As if that were not enough even the private soldiers
had been informed against me. 'One day as I was going to-
wards the avenue of the Government buildings, I was begged
(by an old man, named Ali Ajgha I think, in front of Ali Bffen-
di the shoemaker's shop, to come to the rescue of the son of
the watchmaker Ahmed Effendi, who was being beaten by
Greek soldiers. I entered the shop where I saw a soldier in the
act of raising his gun to strike the child. I tried to hold the
gun saying : "I beg you to pardon him to please me, Dont
fltiurt him. Besides the child is an epileptic. He ought to be ex-
cused even if he has done wrong." The soldier fixing his ba-
yonet, rushed on me in a furious rage, crying out "I will do
for you". I had to fly to save my life, but I learnt from the
same soldier whom I met the next day, that his attitude to-
wards me had been the result of the unfavourable opinion in
regard to me with which he had been inspired beforehand.
This soldier had no sooner perceived me, than he threatened
me saying : "Why did you take hold of the gun?" You protect
the Turks. Besides I have been told by many Greeks that you
have Turkish sympathies. Take care not to protect the Turks.
Take off your fez too, if you don't want it to be found in the
street some day.
The gardener Dimitri will bear witness tnat it was with
the greatest difficulty that I escaped his hands.
I shut myself up at home for two days, to avoid the at-
tacks of the Evzones, who wished to make me take off my fez :
I quote the fact to show their contemptible intentions.
Then began the tragic event of Aidin. Alas and alas! This
dark event could only be depicted by dipping^ poisoned dag-
ger in human blood. He who proposed to overthrow the ma-
jestic tree of Islamism deeply rooted by its foundations and
traditions for so many years, he who had the intention of
suppressing the Mussulman world, instead of fighting bravely
and respecting military dignity and moral laws, cast thousands
of projectiles on the houses and setting fire to the quarters
of the Mussulmans, fired with machine guns on the population
living there, which was thus wiped out even to the infants in
the arms of their mothers. Heaps of skeletons were formed of
their bodies. It is beyond doubt that any description of these
devastations would come short of the truth. At the moment
when this state of things was 'going on and when the Mussul-
mans were agonising, divine justice made its appearance, ex-
tinguishing the fires lighted by the oppressors and silencing
then- arms. Victorious Turkish 'bands penetrated into the
town, amazed and overcome by the indescribable atrocities
that met their eyes. Although provoked to the highest pitch,
yet in spite of their ignorance they did not forget their moral
and religious qualities, and did not take revenge upon innocent
Christians. The Christian population which had taken refuge
at the Catholic Sisters' School was transported with the ob-
ject of protecting it, to. the government building; then, regu-
larly provisioned, it was taken iby train to safer quarters in
the interior. But some young men, ungrateful traitors of low
instincts, having ambushed themselves in houses from whence
they fired upon the bands repeatedly and steadily, the latter
fired back. The fire which took place destroyed the Greek
quarters. The result is that the pretty town of Aidin presents
a ruined aspect. Uufortunately the voices imploring help do
not reach the just and charitable ear of the Powers of the
Entente. iNo glance is east on this sombre spectacles, as if the
annihilation of Anatolia had been decided on. That is the civi-
lisation of the twentieth century, its works and its charms.
Deeply dejected I have summed up what I have seen in
five pages without deviating in the slightest degree from my
conscience, and I present my evidence to the governor in the
interests of humanity,
I add a few facts that I had omitted in my report, my
mind being perturbed at the time I drew it up.
The following facts are established :
The Greek troops of reinforcement seeing, after the enco-
unter which took place with the bands at Erbeyli, that some
Evzones had been killed, arrested and killed some notabilities
of Erbeyli, Hizirbeyli, Kermendjik and Kara-Pounar and set
fire to the villages. After the painful event of Aidin the presi-
dent of the Criminal Courts, the Prosecutor, the notabilities
Hadji Bey, his son Chabir and other persons, the numbers and
names of whom will be established later on, were arrested and
taken away. The arms of the policement and gendarmeries
were carried off the day before the event. The arms of the
Mussulmans having been confiscated, these were used to arm
the native Greeks. In proof of this I can testify that when I
found myself as a refugee at the Catholic iSisters' School some
French gendarmes declared that they would make a report
concerning some guns of large calibre taken from native
Greeks and which in my quality of judge they showed to me
as witness, and 'also that I heard shots fired in the interior of
the town from Greek houses. As for the propagation of the
fire, in the Greek quarter, that took place before the arrival
of the bands, and because the fire lighted by the Greeks in the
Mussulman quarters of Duban-eunu spread to the house of Fi-
liden, Who lives in the Greek quarter and from there to the
other parts. And even when hidden iat the Catholic Sisters'
School we were conveyed to the government building by the
bands to be protected from the fire which had nearly reached
To the managing treasurer of the sous-prefecture
On the arrive! of the Hellenic forces of occupation in the
commune of Ine-<Abad, the local population had manifested no
resistance towards them. In spite of that when the occupation
was extended as far as Aidin and Nazilli the conduct of the
Greeik soldiers who had remained in the stations of Baladdjik,
Kermendjik, Erbeyli, Kara-Pounar and in the surrounding
Villages was more than brutal with regard to the population
They 'began by taking possession of all the domestic animals
belonging to the people; by insulting the Mussulmans in the
streets and public places; by extorting money from peaceable
labourers going to their fields ; by attacking the honour of the
women they met alone in the gardens. Then it became dange-
rous for the inhabitants, to go freely about their affairs in
their grounds and properties; public order and safety were
gravely compromised. These crimes committed against the
population increased every day.
The clock placed in the police station at the government
buildings and the equipment of the gendarmes were taken by
the Greek soldiers; the clock was recovered at the moment
when it was being sold at the market and the arms were found
later. Greek bands even had the audacity to approach the
outskirts of the town and killed in one day eight peasants
who were employed in sowing their fields. In consequence of
all these facts and other ignoble doings, distrust increased
amongst the inhabitants and each thought only of securing
his own safety.
Following on a fresh aggression, I learnt that certain per-
sons had defended themselves by firing on the Greek soldiers
at the station of Erbeyli. The next day Greek forces at Ker-
mendjik collected together 70 to 80 innocent inhabitants of
the surrounding villages. The women and children were saved
thanks to my intervention but out the 52 men, the 36 quite
innocent youths were massacred with the bayonet in the sta-
tion of Erbeyli itself and the twelve ithers old and ill were sent
as prisoners to Aidin.
This last ignominy having terrified the population of the
commune to the highest pitch, it was difficult to prevent an
exodus in mass and all the villages along the railway were
completely evacuated by their inhabitants. Later on when the
Greek columns concentrated at Aidin were reinforced, an im-
portant detachment was sent to Kermendjik. The commandant
of these forces had me imprisoned for no reason at the sta-
tion. There, the Greek soldiers and Greek bandits acting in
concert with them robbed me of all I had on me, taking even
my shoes. I was horribly ill-treated, insulted and beaten du-
ring two days. Meantime another group of assassins composed
of Greek ruffians of the region and of the Hellenic soldiery,
fell upon my house. They stole and pillaged furniture, money,
jewelry all that I had been able to accumulate during my
twenty years working career. My old mother, my wife were
beaten, my daukhter wounded with a sword thrust; my little
daughter of eight and my son of four years old, were killed
under the eyes of their mother with bayonet wounds and un-
thinkable tortures. Assaults on private houses, pillage, mas-
sacre and torture were extended to the other inhabitants. A
crowd of people, old men, women, children most of the villa-
gers of Nechetie, Who were working in the fields or passing
along the roads on each side of the railway after Balladdjik
were all arrested by the Greek soldiers; the director of teleg-
raphs of the commune was amongst them ; they were led away
in a body and incarcerated in the Han d'Ismail Aigha at Ker-
mendji'k. The lack of all news as to the fate of these poor pe-
ople forces the belief that they were also assassinated.
During my arrest and at the time when those events were
taking place, I was called upon to give some explanations to
an English Colonel and to Mr. Hoder who had come to the
station of Kermendjik to get an idea of the situation. I was
taken before them. I recounted to them in detail the cowardly
aggressions of which my person, my family and the inhabi-
tants in general had been the objects : I explained to them the
terror and the exodus of the population towards the moun-
tains as a result of the insecurity and alleging the danger to
which my own life was exposed I told them that I would not
leave them nor the train in which they were. They took me
with them and I arrived at Aidin with them.
I made my report to the Sub-Prefecture and not finding
means to return I remained that day at Aidin. The next day
the offensive being taken by the Greek forces, there was a
baatle between them and the population which defended the
bridge of the Meandre-. I todk refuge and hid myself quite
alone in the empty house that Moustaphe, exciseman at Ker-
mendjik, possesses at Aidin. The fire lighted by the Greeks
having reached this house also, I fled into the street where
thanlk God I was not hit by the balls from the machine-guns
which the Greeks turned on all those who attempted to fly
from the fire.
The Greeik forces in retreat after the battle of Meandre
pillaged, set fire to, and completely destroyed the towns^ of
KaraPounar and Kermendjik, the villages Reiss, Hizdr-Beyli,
Sandonlkli, Mamoure-t-ul Hamid, Kipti-Muslim, Sinir Tekke,
and massacred the whole population of these towns and villa-
ges, old men, women, child ren without exception. Out of the
12.000 inhabitants that the commune counted, the 1600 who
not had the time or the means to fly were thus annihilated.
The possessions and estates of those Who remained were pilla-
ged and set on f ire ; thus they also are ruined. Those who were
spared from the hellenic scourge could save only their lives;
they took refuge in the zone occupied by the Italians in the
communes and Kazas of iSobidje, Seuke, Tchine and to the
south of Meandre. They are all in an indeseriibable state of
misery and despair. And this comuna, the most thickly peop-
led and the richest of the Sandjak, is no more than a great
desert, a heap of ruins.
In these conditions, as there no longer remained any fune-
tions to exercise in the commune and my house besides 'being
burnt, my belongings pillaged, my family dispersed and disap-
peared, I left the commune and started to look for them. I
found my family at Kotcharly and we are installed at Kir-
Obassi, chief town of the Kaza of Tichne; from where I address
this report to your Excellency.
I 'beg you, Sir, to accept etc.
The Governor of the Commune of Ine-iAbad
Protestation of the Turkish Inhabitants of the
Regions devastated by the Greeks.
We denounce to the civilised world the policy of extermi-
nation of the Turkish element, practised, especially since the
departure of the English representatives, Mr. Whitall and
iLientenant Grant, by the Greeks and by the Hellenic authori-
ties who have occupied the Sandjak of Aidin contrary to the
decisions of the Powers.
130 Turkish travellers who were forced to get out of the
train at the station of Azizie were led to a ravine near the
station where, after having first violated the women under
the eyes of their husbands and parents, the Greeks massacred
them all with incredible tortures. The Greeks set fire to all
the towns, villages of the zone of occupation and killed, bur-
ned alive or piled up in wells, women, children, old men, in
short all the Turks who fell into their hands. They assassi-
nated on the way, along with other unfortunates, all the nota-
bilities whom they took away from Nazilli and elsewhere; they
assassinated in the open strett a crowd of poor people who had
been arrested on futile pretexts and whom they pretended to
be talking 1 to prison. They entered houses by force, violated
women and young girls, killed the husbands and children; the
functionaries and notabilities were not spared on any consi-
The wearing of hats was made compulsory for the non-
mussulmans; cans of petrol were placed in different parts of
the Turkish quarters; water was cut off from the mussulman
quarters; special signs were put on the houses and shops of
the non-mussulmans; all that foretold a general massacre of
the Turkish population in the town of Aidin.
On the 28th June the Hellenic troops without any reason
attacked the out-post of the national forces which guarded
the bridge of the Meandre. They retired intentionally, so as
to 'give themselves up to the combat they had provoked in the
town of Aidin. By placing machine-guns on the minarets and
building's more or less elevated, by setting fire to the Turkish
quarters, by employing ecen artillery in the town, they made
the battle degenerate into a general massacre, The Greeks
besides shot down with rifles or machine-guns posted at every
corner the poor unfortunates, men women, and children who
tried to escape from the flames ; many of them thus prevented
from coming out were burned alive in their houses or carbo-
nised under the ruins. As for the buildings which the fire had
not reached they were all riddled by shot from the artillery
and all who were inside were drilled or wounded.
This murderous combat which lasted three days was by
divine mercy put an end to by the hurried retreat of the Hel-
lenic hordes before national forces inferior in numbers and
equipment, iand the survivors of the massacres were thus sa-
ved from the Hellenic ferocity. On the other hand, the Eng-
lish, French, Italian, private persons, and the foreign official
personalities and even the Greeks themselves can bear witness
to the kindness with which the Turks ibehaved to the Greeks,
to these very assassins who, barricaded in the church or in
their houses, were expecting the just punishment of their ig-
But the Hellenic hordes routed at Aidin, having received
reinforcements from Smyrna and elsewhere, have returned to
the charge and practise their crimes and their ignominy with
more audacity than ever. These hordes have advanced upon
Aidin burning, destroying, pillaging, killing on their passage
all that remained all that had been able to survive the prece-
The Mussulmans of Aidin and the region round it who
were able to escape in time have taken refuge in the mounta-
ins, the deserted parts of the valleys and in the Italian zone
of occupation to the south of Meandre. The 95 % of the popu-
lation of the Liva of Aidin are Turks. Does the civilised world
approve of the barbarism of the Greeks and the massacres
perpetrated by them in order to destroy this overwhelming
majority? The Turkish population of Aidin had however con-
ducted itself with benevolence towards the Christians in ge-
neral and the Greeks who lived peacefully amongst us to this
day. The mussulmans are persuaded that hummanity and the
civilised Powers cannot approve of these barbarous practices
unprecedented in history.
To save the lives of hundreds of thousands of peaceable
inhabitants who have taken refuge in the mountains and ne-
ighbouring regions and who are in a state of indescribable des-
titution and distress, we beg you to put a speedy end to the
Hellenic occupation of the Sandjaik of Aidin.
Here follow some hundreds of signatures of deputies, of
members of the General Council, of the President and mem-
bers of the Municipality.
Address presented by the population of Aidin.
White awaiting every moment the evacuation of our country
by the Greek troops, we observe with profound grief and reg-
ret that our State and our people, who have abandoned the
defence of their rights at the just decision of the peace con-
ference are daily exposed to numerous atrocities. The Greeks,
who found it necessary to evacuate the town of Nazilli, assas-
sinated on leaving the town forty-two Mussulman notabilities.
Up to the time theyleft Aidin they killed an incalculable num-
ber of Mussulmans of which the English representative Mr.
Hoder acquirest the conviction with his own eyes, and related
in his reports. The popular troops of defence who had assem-
bled at Aidin and the surroundings to prevent a great number
of painful atrocities and who had proposed the evacuation of
the town twelve days before, a proposal which had not been
accepted, had to undergo at 12 km. from the town a steady
fire from the official Greek troops; after the defence thus im-
posed and the bloody battle which lasted three days the town
was conquered. But the incendiary shells fired deliberately by
the Greeks upon the Mussulman quarters during the battle
had produced their effects. In particular the Hotel de Smyrne
and several houses, notaJbly that of the ex-president of the
municipality Ahmed Bey, were set on fire 'by means of rags
soaked in petrol. The fire thus produced from four sides still
continues without possibility of being extinguished. The re-
treating forces accomplished not only such atrocities; shooting
the unfortunate Mussulmans, women, children and old men
who tried to come out of their houses to espace from the fire;
nailing women to walls by their eyes ; assassinating young girls
after having outraged them in presence of their parents; cut-
ting off the breasts and arms of women and thrusting them
into the sexual parts; but the same troops assassinated a large
number of functionaries and notabilities who did not manage
to hide them selves, they burnt with the same atrocious pro-
ceedings all the Mussulman villages lying along the railway,
among which :
These same retreating forces having received reinforce-
ments, tried to recapture AMin from the Mussulmans. Al-
though the latter managed to save their lives 'by flying from
the mountains, invaded the plain and massacred with their
machu^guns a 'great number of the fugitives, women, and
children. After a bloody battle lasting forty eight hours the
town was cleared of enemies; but a considerable part of what
remained of the town was set on fire by the latter. The ob-
vious rights of the Mussulman population, reduced to have
recourse to various means in order to save its life threatened
by this .barbarous tyranny to which it will not be able to ac-
custom itself for many reasons, cannot fail to attract the at-
tention of the conference. We beg that effective measures may
be taken against these painful atrocities which are always
increasing, and that impartial mission may inquire into these
events. Those who were able to espace, completely destitute,
have taken refuge in the zone occupied 'by the civilised Italian
government and, having fled from the fire, are reduced to
living under trees and bushes in frightful misery. We beg that
the obvious rights as well as the life and future of fifty to
sixty thousand Mussulmans, who form the seven-eighths of
the population may be assured. The seed of discord cast bet-
ween -us cannot in any way affect the good relations establis-
hed with the Greek race, and we shall continue to live on good
terms as we have done fpr centuries. We have the honour to
inform you that once the disastrous Greek occupation has
ceased we shall resume the cordial relations in conformity
with our national customs and sentiments.
Reports of the survivors of the Quarter of
Debbagh at Aidin.
On the 22nd of July 1919 at 8 o'clock in the morning, at
the time When the Hellenic troops were fighting against the
national forces outside the town, some Greek soldiers first of
all set fire by means of oiled rags to the house of Yozgadli
Hassan Effendi, situated in the quarter Debbagh, and filled
with wood and dried herbs.
The little Fatma Dinarli KM who tried to save herself by
running out of the house, was thrust through with bayonets
and thrown back into fire where she was burnt. In the same
quarter, another girl Emine Hanoum, daughter of Hafiz Mous-
tapha Effendi who was fleeing from the fire hi the same way
was also wounded and prevented from going out.
Other Greek soldiers and ruffians entered Ali Effendi's
house. After having killed his two sons Djemal and Raghib,
they set f ire to the house and incinerated amongst the ruins
the corpses of these two unfortunates.
They carried off Zehra and Ismet Hanoums the wife and
daughter of Moustapha Effendi, who were hi the same house.
To this day no news has (been received of them. The Greeks
moreover set fire with incendiary Ibombs to the house of Pesh-
temaldji Zade Houdayi Effendi and wounded his servant Ibra-
him. Thus the whole quarter was burnt by the Greeks and tho-
se who tried to escape were shot or thrown back into the fla-
mes. So that in our quarter alone 1483 persons were shot, kil-
led by the machine-guns or by bombs.
Extracts from a report on the atrocities of Nazilli.
The Greek troops of occupation suddenly began a retrea-
ting movement on Thursday 19th of June at midnight. Going
to all the houses of the Christians they ordered them to ac-
company them declaring that the Turks would kill them. They
assembled at two o'clock in the barracks square, disarmed the
Ottoman gendarmes in the neighbourhood of the barracks,
and sending in front of them the whole Christian population
and taking with them Kenan Bey who had been their prisoner
for there days as well as about thirty Mussulmans whoso
hands they had bound, they left Nazilli and started for Ak-
When morning came and everyone was stirring a national
force was immediately organised and the defence of the town
was entrusted to honourable personages, worthy of confidence
who were charged to accomplish their patriotic and humane
duty. To complete the restoration of order thus established,
an attempt was made to telegraph to invite the regular Tur-
kish troops of the neighbourhood; but this could not be done,
the telegraph wires having been cut 'by the Hellenes and com-
munication interrupted on all sides.
In spite of that order was perfectly well maintained with
the national forces which had been constituted.
Later on the national forces led toy Hamdi Bey, as well
as the cavalry placed under the orders of the commandant Hak-
ki Bey having arrived, this tranquillity could ve extended to
the villages and communes; the stolen property was in part
recovered from the different places where it had been hidden
and the rest was regained possession of Iby degrees.
Though the occupation of the Caza of Nazilli by the Greek
troops was accomplished without incident and was accepted
with resignation and confidence in the justice of Europe, and
though no material resistance was offered, yet from the day
of the occupation, Greek soldiers attacked Mussulman women,
and carried indecency to the point of committing acts such
as would revolt the most obscene beings, as exhibiting their
genital organs in the open street. They wounded the religious
sentiments of the Mussulman population by crying to the
muezzin who summoned them to prayer "Don't bray like an
The Hellenic commandant tolerated the robbery every day
of one or two shops with the complicity ot the Greeks of the
country, the seizing of property without compensation, or
again the deliberate emptying of sacks containing cereals.
Every day several highly respected persons were arrested on
futile pretexs like the formulas : "You do not desire the Hel-
lenic occupation" "or else" You would have requested an Eng-
lish. French or Italian occupation". Two days before withdra-
wing the Greeks imprisoned without any right or reason,
simply because they formed part of the honest and intellectual
class, the retired commandant .Kemal Bey, the excise-man
Chukri Bey, Hafiz Mehmed, Hadji Mehmed, the tax-gatherer
Riza and about thirty persons. On their departure they took
away all the prisoners having bound their hands, except Chuk-
ri Bey who was necessarily released as an employe of the ad-
ministration : Kenan Bey and Hadji Hamdi were severely
wounded. The others, as well as the numerous Mussulmans
who were arrested on the way were massacred and their corp-
ses flung into ditches.
(signed) The Mufti of Nazili : Salih.
The Mayor : Mehmed Emin.
The Lau'yer : Ilharai.
1. The train going from Denizli to Smyrna was stopped
at Ephesus and the 90 Turkish travellers, men and women
who were in it ordered to descend. And there in the open street,
under the eyes of their husband, father or brother, the wo-
men without distinction of age were violated, and then all the
travellers were massacred. Amongst the latter the Lieutenant
Salih Effendi, a native of Tripoli, and a captain whose name
is not known, and to whom the Hellenic authorities had given
safe conduct, were killed with specially atrocious tortures.
2. Before the battle, the wife of the lawyer Enver Bey
coming from her garden was maltreated by Greek soldiers,
she was even stript of her garments and her servant Assie
3. The two tax j gatherers Mustapha and Ali Effendi were
killed hi the following manner : their arms were bound behind
their backs with wire and their heads were battered and burst
open with (blows from the butt end of a gun.
4. During the firing of the town eleven children, six little
girls and five boys, fleeing from the flames, were stopped by
Greek soldiers in the (Ramazan Pacha quarter, and thrown into
a burning Jewish house near bridge, where they were burnt
alive. This fact is confirmed on oath by the retired comman-
dant Hussein Hussni lEffendi who saw it.
'5. The clock-maker Ahmed Effendi and his son Sadi were
arrested and dragged out of their shop. The son had his eyes
put out and was then killed in the court of the Greek Church
but Ahmed Effendi has been no more heard of.
6. At the market, during the fire, two unknown people
were wounded by bayonets, then bound together, thrown into
the fire and burnt alive.
The Greeks killed also many Jews. These are the names
of some :
Mopssa Malki, shomaker killed.
Bohor Levy, tailor "
Bohor Israel, coM>ler
Isaac Calivo, shoemaker
David Aroguete n
Moussa Lerosse "
Gioia Katan "
Soultan Ghardlb "
Isaac Sabah wounded.
Moche Fahmi "
Moise Bensignor killed.
Jacob Jaffe wounded.
1. It is established by various witnesses that a woman
of the quarter Terziler had an arm cut off and thrust into her
sexual organ, and one breast cut off and put in her mouth.
2. The corpse of another woman, naked and the right side
burnt, and with bullet wounds below the breasts, was seen
near Pechtemaldji Tcherkesse by Captain Behaeddine Effendi
of the 56th division.
3. The corpse of a man whose feet and wrists were bound
with telegraph wires, and who had been killed by having the
arteries of his legs and arms cut, was brought to the court of
the Head-Quarters of the division.
4. A Mussulman was butchered in the justice hall of the
building belonging to the Hellenic Commandment at Aidin.
This poor "man, whose identity could not 'be established had
his head cut off on a chair with inicredilble tortures. The thing
was seen by Captain Hussni Bey of the Staff of the 57th di-
5. The waiter of the Hotel de iSmyrne, Hassan and one
of the guests Moustapha Effendi were killed while fleeing
from the fire. Their corpses were shown to the English Agent,
Hoder by the proprietor of the Hotel
6. Quarter iDukkan Eunii; they entered the house of
Hadji Yahya Effendi, an old man, one of the best known no-
tabilities of Aidin and after having taken all the money and
valuables he possessed, they butchered him with his wife.
7. Arabe-Hadji-Hafiz of the iKozOibi quarter, assasina-
ted while going to his field.
8. In the same quarter, Hadji Rachid Effendi and his
wife were killed while flying from the fire.
9. Zehra Hanoum sister of Ahmed Effendi proprietor of
the Hotel de Smyrne killed on fleeing from the fire zone.
10. The wife and mother of Moustapha Effendi, employe
at the law-court of Cheri, killed in the same circumstances.
11. The lawyer Bdhem Bey, the 'best known notability of
the town, belonging 1 to an old family, was taJken from his
house with his wife and his five children to the Greek quar-
ter. And there, his four children aged one, three, seven and
nine years were cruelly butchered and torn to pieces. -Bdhem
Bey and his wife were saved (by the arrival of the, Turkish for-
ces .which occupied Aidin.
12. Kadi Keuylu Mehmed Ali Effendi, of the Ramazan
Pacha quarters was killed by bayonet wounds and his corpse
thrown into his own house, which was on fire.
13. The two brothers Djemal and Rag'hiib beys, sons of
Ali Effendi after having their eyes put out, were killed by the
bayonet and their corpses burnt.
14. Nakie Hanoum, aged twelve years and daughter of
Cheikh Aziz, another notability of AMin, was 'killed in trying
to escape from the fire in the Debaghli quarter.
15. The doctor Ismail Bey, his wife and his two children,
aged from two to five years, were led by force to the Greek
quarters, where after having submitted Madame Ismail Bey
to the worst outrages, slaughtered the children before their
parents, the poor couple were in their turn shot near the bridge
16. The sister of Hussein Effendi of the bureau of military
circumscription was violated and then her throat was cut.
17. In the quarter Dulkkan Eunu some Greeks broke into
the house of Kildji Zade Ismail Effendi and after having outra-
ged his wife butchered her with her young children.
18. Hafiz Emin Effendi of the same quarter killed. Of the
same quarter Hafiz Ahmed Effendi, son of Hadji Yahya Ef-
fendi whose murder along with his wife was related above,
was also killed.
19. The retired Lieutenant Adali Zia Bey and his brother
assassinated and his wife baptised by force and called Maria
was outrageously violated and killed.
20. Hassib, son of Moustapha, of Orta Mahalle killed in
fleeing from the fire.
21. In the Djouma quarter, Balikdji Oghlou Suleiman and
his wife murdered in their house.
22. Of the same quarter Hammal Kadry 'killed in his house.
23. Of the same quarter Ali bin Hadji Suleimen killed in
24. The daughter of Hussny Bey (killed.
25. In the quarter Kemer, Albdi and 'Dana Mehmed were
taken from their house, and after having put out their eyes,
out off then* noses and cut the sikin from their faces, the Greek
soldiers killed them with the bayonet.
26. Imam Qgfolou Mehmed .killed.
27. Ibrahim, servant of Houdayi Effiendi Ml'led.
28. At Duikkan Eunu, Greeks entered the house of the
grocer Mehmed, violated his wife and daughter and killed all
29. The woman Zeliha killed at AJk Mesdjid.
30. Aiche, the daughter of Hadji Mehmed killed.
31. At Djouma, the charcoal-burner Metomed killed with
his mother aged 60 years, whom he was carrying away on his
back to save her from the fire.
32. Dervish Arab a poor seller of amulets, native of Ben-
ghazi was killed at Tchaouch iKeupru.
Report of the doctor Mazhar Bey, inhabitant of Aidiii.
The Greeks learning that the inhabitants of the surroua
dings of Aidin al'anmed and excited by the acts of the Greeks
at Aidiin, had taken up arms with the intention of defending
themselves, advanced in the direction of the Meandre where a
battle began which gradually reached as far as the town. Ta-
king advantage of that, the Greeks turned the machine-guns
which they had placed on the minarets and high places, aga-
inst the houses, kindled fires with the aid of rags soaked in
petrol and of a blue substance which they used, and caused
the poor women and children who tried to flee from the fire
to be shot by Greek soldiers posted for that purpose. The mur-
ders and violations whose reality is proved by the evidence of
the emigrants who were able to take refuge at Denizli have
been summed up in this second list :
1. The clerk of the religious court Moustapha Effendi
saw two evzones and two native Greeks coming out of the
house of Hadji Yahia Elffendi after having cut the latter to
pieces with their bayonets along with his wife, his son and his
daughter laden with a basket containing pieces of gold and
a bag containing bank-notes.
2. The same clerk coming out into the street accompanied
by his wife and his mother because the fire had caught the
next-door house, his wife was wounded in the chest and his
mother in the leg by bullets, fired by the Hellenic soldiers, and
are to-day being treated at Denizli. The aforesaid have been
seen by the commandant Labon, French military representa-
3. In the same quarter two Greek soldiers penetrated into
the house of Aiche native of Ourla, to carry off his daughter,
who is very beautiful. She not being there, the Greeks mur-
dered her mother.
4. The woman Zeliha of the quarter of Djouma was killed
with bayonet wounds in the open street.
5. Again in the quarter of Djuma they carried off the
daughter of the grocer Djenan and 'killed the latter and his
6. They killed in the street with bayonets Hadjer, the
wife of Ahmed, native of Sparta and living in the quarter of
Djuma, as well as her child aged one year and a half, who
were both fleeing from the fire.
7. At Denizli at present undergoing treatment, there is
the daughter of the shoemaker Hadji Mehmed, native of Ed-
' remid, Aiche who is seriously wounded in the chest. The latter
has been seen by the French military representative the Com-
mandant Labon, who aided her pecuniarily.
8. The wife of the charcoal-burner Mehmed, of the Djuma
quarter, aged seventy years and impotent, whom her husband
was carrying on his back in order to fly from the fire was
killed by a ball, and he himself was slightly wounded.
9. Two native Greeks and two Hellenic soldiers having
penetrated into the house of Hafiz Ismail, son of Fildji of the
quarter of Dukfkan-Eunii, stole all his money and murdered
his wife and child, and also the chemist of the municipality
Essad, his wife and his sister-in-law, who were visiting them.
10. In the quarter of Djuma the door of the house of the
ex-forester Arif Bey having been destroyed iby means of a bomb
he himself was butchered.
11. As the mother, the son-in-law and the young child of
Loutfi, soap-merchant, had come out into the street to escape
the fire, the mother and the young child were killed. At the
same moment the two children of Faldji-Arab also fell victims
to the balls.
12. In the quarter of Djuma Hafiz, son of Ishac, was mur-
dered, his money stolen and his house set on fire.
18. In the quarter of Djuma, the wife of the cook Mehmed
was assassinated and .his daughter wounded with bayonets,
after having 'been violated. In the same quarter Mehmed Is-
mail, son of Pazarli was murdered in his house.
14. In the quarter of Djuma, Hadidje, wife of the chest-
nutseller Mehmed, was outraged and killed.
15. In the quarter of Djuma Mehmed Bey of Sultan-Hissar,
was killed in his house.
16. In the quarter of Djuma Helvadji-Qglou-Islail, was
killed in the house.
17. In the quarter of Djuma Haf iz Emin Effendi was killed
in his house.
18. In the quarter of Djuma AlWDede was murdered and
his house burnt.
19. In the quarter of Djuma Kemedji-Hafiz was murdered
and his house burnt.
20. In the quarter of Djuma, the tailor Kara^Ahmed and
his son Mehmed were butchered.
21. The shoemaker Noury of the quarter of Djuma was
murdered and his house set on fire.
22. The saddler Mehmed of the quarter of Djuma and his
family were assassinated.
23. Suleiman Effendi of the quarter of Djuma guardian of
the Banque Agricole was assassinated and his house set on
24. Tchatkirlarin Saline of the quarter of Djuma was ou-
traged and then murdered.
25. Hafiz, native of Stan^Keuy and living in the quarter
of Djuma was assassinated.
26. In the quarter of Djuma, Djiguer^Oglou-Ali, his wife,
his son and his son-in-law were assassinated and burnt.
27. Zia Bey, native of Kouch-Ada and living in the quarter
of Djuma and his brother were assassinated and burnt in their
28. Tezkiahtar Oglou, of the quarter of Djuma, his wife
and his daughter were killed while flying from the fire.
29. Were assassinated the blacksmith Moustapha, native
of Kemer, Karavali Hassan of the quarter of Mechroutiet and
his brother Arslan and Moustapha son of Ibrahim and his bro-
ther of the same quarter.
30. Were assassinated Hodja-Kizi Hafize, his daughter,
the milkman Dourmouch, his wife Emine, Hadidje wife of the
gardener of AM-Tchaouch, all of the quarter of Orta; Zelihan
of the quarter of Djuma. The daughter of the latter, wounded,
is under treatment hi the hospital of Nazilli.
31. In the quarter of Tchicourt : Hafiz, son of Kalbour,
his daughter Merieme, his six sons Moustapha, Tchakir-
Osman, Rozdoganli-Ahmed-Tchaouch, Osman Yuklu Ibrahim,
Bourgas-Mehmed, Moustapha son of Gheuk-Oglan as well as
his daughter, his son and his wife, whose body was ripped
open, were assassinated and burnt.
32. Aiche, daughter of Defterdjv Doudou, daughter of
Guiridli and Hussni were outraged, then killed and their bo-
dies ripped open.
33. Kara-Oemirdji and his family of five persons of the
quarter of Kemer; Moustapha, son of Tchakir, the wife of Meh-
med AM, son of Tchiftdji, of the quarter of Tchicourt; Dana
'Mehmed AM, of the quarter of Kemer, whose cars and nose
were cut off, were assassinated.
34. In the quarter of Tchicourt : Hassan-Tchaonch Meh-
med^SaMh, Mehmed, son of Hadje^Salih, Emdne, daughter of
Hamourdji, the mother and daughter of Hekim-Guelin, Hadidej,
daughter of Emirler were 'killed and burnt..
35. Were killed, at Dukkan Eunu : Mehmed, son of Tcha-
kir and his wife Djemile; at Tchicourt : Fatma, daughter-in-
law of Nebi, the husband of Zahire, Kadaifdji Suleiman; at
Kemer : Karasli Suleiman, his wife his daughter and his sons,
Hussein, son of Dagli Hussein, Fatma, mother of Arpazli-Og-
lou; at KoutbinAla : the porter Kadir, Mouitab Ibrahim; at
Djama : Emir Aiche, daughter of balikdji, the wife of the
36. Were killed in the quarter of Hassan : Mehmed, son
of Arab-Ogliu, his two sons and his daughter; at Tchicourt :
Abdurrahman, native of Ikiz-Dere, Hassan de Konieh, Meh-
med, son of KaranAli, his wife and son, Hodja Youssouf Ef-
fendi and his daughter Fatma wife of Resoul-Oglou ; Ismail
'of Baram was wounded.
37. In the quarter of Koufcbi-Ala : Kildji Ibrahim; 'in the
quarter of Kainak : Arab^SaHih; in the quarter of Kozdibi :
the taxigatherer HaJbil Effendi; in the quarter of Orta : the
wife of the tanner Abdullah ; in the quarter of Dukkan j Eunoi
the muezzin iMolla Mouhsin; in the quarter of Bagdjilar : the
lawyer Mehmed Hilmi Effendi; in the quarter of Koutbi-Ala :
Oherif Ali, native of Tepedjilk; in the quarter of Bagdjilar :
Mehmed Emin Effendi father of Kiamil Effendi native of Ka-
di^Keuy; in the quarter of Ramazan Pacha : Mehmed Effendi
son of Anbarli, the notability Nedjiib Bey had their dwellings
pillaged, their money stolen, and assassinated, were burnt in
38. Were assassinated : the chemist Ali Effendi, his two
sons and his daughter, Aiche the adopted daughter of the
Oheih Aziz Effendi, the mother and son of Ibrahim Effendi
native of Kouch-Ada.
39. Hafiz Halil, of the quarter Djuma, fleeing with his
wife and his children, a ball shattered the arm of his son Meh-
nied aged seven years who died later at the charity hospital.
His daughter Latif, aged eleven years, was wounded in the
left groin and was seen at Denizli by the French military rep-
resentative Labore : Out of four women and children assem-
bled at the place where the fusillade was directed upon them,
twelve fell dead on this spot; some of them who were able to
flee, wounded, were treated at the hospital of Nazilli.
40. The bodies of Emin, son of AtdjaM-bhvOglou, Ahmed,
son of Karchi Yakali and his son, of the quarter of Karadja-
Ahmed; Minaredji Moustapha, his mother Fatma, and his
daughter, of the quarter of IKaradja Ahmed were found cut
in quarters at the place called Kepez.
41. At the same place were found the corpses of seven
Mussulmans whose names are unknown.
42. The wife Hadidje and the daughter Hourie of Salih-
Effendi of the quarter of IKaradja- Ahmed were carried off by
neighbours who were Greeks and their corpses were found
having been ripped open.
Another report of the doctor Mazhar Bey
living in Aidin.
1. On the pretext that they had conversed, before the
occupation, with two Italian officers who had come to visit
Aidin, Chefik Safi Bey, Kiamii Emin Bey and Eumer Bey were
imprisoned and tortured.
2. The muezzins were prevented from issuing their calls
to prayer and were beaten. The muezzins of the ancient and
of the new mosque of Riza Pacha were (beaten and had their
3. A Greek officer wished to take to some place unknown,
Mehmed Effendi, son of Ahmed Effendi Kavaszade who was
at the Casino. Being young he was afraid and refused politely.
The officer split open his head, and beat his brother as well
as the stocklbroclker's clerk Noury Effendi. Although the Greek
commandant annouced that this officer had been degraded he
is still to be seen employed at his post.
4. In the neighbourhood of GhumBagtche the wife and
daughter of the lawyer Bey were outraged and had their
5. The wife of the upholsterer effendi was outraged
in her house.
6. The wife Effendi attacked in her vineyard.
7. The daughter of was carried off from her house
during the night and underwent outrages.
8. The youths wearing hair-caps or long boots were hor-
rtibly tortured, on the pretext that they belonged to committes.
The prisoners received neither bread nor water for several
9. The merchants who did not sell their goods at the pri-
ces fixed by the Greek officers and soldiers were imprisoned.
Amongst them was the matchmaker Ahmed and his son the
10. At the vegetable market a Hellenic doctor having
come to the rescue of the butcher Ihrahim, whom some native
Greeks were beating a soldier evzone beat the officer and car-
ried off Ibrahim whom he killed with a revolver, in sight of
hundreds of people, on the bridge of Nazilli.
11. The commissary of the municipality Moustapha Effen-
di, the driver of the rubbish cart Ali baba, were killed on the
/bridge of Nazilli.
12. Arabe Hadji Haf iz of the quarter of Kosti, who was
returning from his vineyard was killed at the entrance of his
13. Vehbi, son of Kouleohinli Ibrahim, who was carrying
wood was killed at Pounar-foachi.
' 14. The Hellenic governor and his two aides de camp ha-
ving seen some Hellenic soldiers, beat the porter Ali to death
at the market, the aides de camp rewarded the soldiers by
taking their arms.
15. The Deputy Director of Public Funds was beaten be-
fore the government buildings by evzone soldiers accompanying
16. Having decreed a state of siege and collected the arms
the native Greeks were armed. Priests from Tire and the sur-
roundings walked about with armed Greeks in the market.
Several armed Christians who obviously were not Anatolians
strolled about in the Mussulman quarters.
17. The Hellenic soldiers who evacuated Nazilli blew to
pieces with machine guns at Kiosk thirty eight Mussulmans
whom they had taken at Nazilli, except three of them who
were able to fly and save themselves.
18. They assassinated eleven inhabitants of Kiosk, two
women and a child amongst them, whom they met in the neigh-
19. At Oumourlou and the surroundings they killed four
and wounded six persons. They set fire to the building situated
on the route Oumourlou-Aidin.
20. The brother of the commissary Mehmed Bffendi, Ali
Effendi was assassinated while working in his garden. The
Greek commandant forbade his remains to be brought into
21. They assassinated, and threw out of the train thirty
eight Mussulmans, whom they were taking from the, Wlayet
of Erbeyli and Deghirmendjik to be questioned, and also ten
22. They murdered eight old men who had not been able
to flee with the Mussulmans of Kara-Pounar, and set fire to
the village. The cattle were taken away to Aidin, and distri-
buted among the Greeks.
23. The villages situated in the neighbourhood of Aidin,
of Yeni^Keuy, Kadi^Keuy, Eude-Imry, Kizildja-Kepy, were set
on fire, their inhabitants massacred and the cattle carried off
24. The Mudir of the commune of Kermendjik was impri-
soned and beaten. They tortured his family in order to get his
money and jewels and wounded his daughter in the head.
The frightful atrocities committed without reason during
the occupation of Smyrna by the Greek troops had extremely
moved the inhabitants of Aidin and the announcement of the
occupation of Aidin itself added to their affliction painful
fears. They thought, in presence of this accomplished fact,
and in their anxiety not to share the dreadful fate of Smyrna,
to receive the troops of occupation with great calm and dignity.
And indeed it was thus they acted. They were not left long in
douibt. After the occupation a great number of honourable and
well-lknown young men began to be arrested. The native Greeks,
who already before the occupation had Ibegun to give open proof
of animosity towards the Mussulmans, went beyond all bounds
and began, in concert with the Hellenic soldiers to tear off
the head-dresses of the Mussulmans at the market and in the
streets, to insult their nationality and their religion. Going
still further, they warned some Armenians and all the Israeli-
tes who still wore the Fez, that they must wear hats in order
to avoid the massacre of the non^Mussulmans. Istamat Ef f en-
di, member of the tribunal, and the Israelitish notablity Bo-
hor Effendi who had received this warning addressed comp-
laints in the presence of a group of Mussulmans to the com-
mandant of the Hellenic troops of occupation. In spite of the
commandant having sworn on his honour as a soldier, and
promised in a declaration addressed to the people, which he
read at the government buildings, that he would punish the
evil doers amongst the soldiers, and that he would prevent
thenceforward the renewal of the infamies practised on the
Mussulmans, and at which he was as much affected as they
themselves, the offences against life and honour increased, the
number of those who disappeared in a single day exceeded a
hundred. I have divided into two parts the heartrending atro-
cities and impudicities, of which I was myself witness, or that
I have established from the evidence of hundreds of witnesses ;
I have inscribed hi the first list those, that one thought fit to
inflict on the persecuted population of Aidin, which had pre-
served a calm attitude, and in the second the crimes committed
after the battle.
The following villages of the valley of Aidin, one of the
richest and most prosperous regions in the world are comple-
tely burnt and destroyed by Greek hordes :
Tdhechte Osman Yoly. Sighirlar.
Protestation of the Greek. and Armenian Religious
Chiefs of Denizli remitted to the High Commissioner
of the Entente in Turkey.
The offences committed by the Hellenic occupying forces
in the region of Aidin 'and its neighbourhood constitute crimes
of an atrocity inconceivable and without parallel in history.
Villages and towns of considerable importance, immense riches
and thousands of innocent human beings have been given wit-
hout mercy as a prey to the flames. The ravages of this mur-
derous hand which continues to perpetrate horrible crimes are
acquiring a greater extension, whose fatal consequences thre-
aten public safety and harmony existing between the different
elements of the country. We, who for more than six hundred
years lived happily under the shield of the Ottoman Empire,
cannot tolerate the continuance of such criminal acts. While
the Hellenes are spreading horror by their crimes quite close
to us, we are enjoying the (benefits and the high protection
and aid of the Ottoman Government and not one of us has been
the object of the slightest attack.
It is with horror and indignation that we reprove the mis-
dieeds of this Hellenic force of occupation, whose sole object
is to pursue a policy of extermination in the country.
In the name of humanity and of public safety we appeal
to the high benevolence of the Great Powers 'begging them to
take into serious consideration, so as to put a stop it as soon
as possible, this horrible carnage.
Locum tenons of the Metropolitan and President of the
Greek Community of Denizli,
The Prelate, HRISSOSTOMOS.
Locum tenens of the Metropolitan of the Armenian
The Prelate, BABKEN.
Circular of the Ottoman League, dated May 31st 1919.
Sub. No 20.
The flagrant contradiction existing between the declara-
tions of the High Commissioners of the Entente at Constanti-
nople relating to the temporary character of the military lan-
ding at Smyrna, and the categorical reply of Venizelos to Bog-
hos Noulbar as well as the grandiloquent proclamations of the
commandants of the Greek detachments hailing as an accomp-
lished fact the return of this town to her so-called mother-co-
untry; the continual adivance of the Hellenic larmy in the Hin-
terland of the vilayet; the occupation of Torbali, of Aidin and
of Magnesie; the massacres, the deportations and the arbitrary
arrests of Turks by the Hellenic troops, who after having in
the most cruel fashion stifled ab ovo the legitimate attempts
at resistance, seek to mislead public opinion by alleging that
they meet with no opposition; all those recent facts make it
our duty to note the lies and baseness of which the Mussul-
mans are still victims and to draw once more and more seri-
ously than ever, the attention of Europe and of America to a
state of things likely to engender grave perturbations in the
Grece, Who, as even the most ardent Hellenists allow, does
not dispose of an up to date personal government not of an
administrative framework adequate for her own territory of
before 1912 and who lives herself under foreign protection,
could not without danger for the tranquillity of the Mussul-
man world extend her domination over an Asiatic territory
inhabited by a million and a half of Turks as against only three
hundred thousand Greeks.
The systematic extermination of the Turks of Thessaly,
of Macedonia and the Islands, of whom more than a million
have disappeared in the space of twenty years, not counting
those who have been forced to emigrate to Anatolia; the pro-
posal officially made by Venizelos, accepted and partly exe-
cuted, to exchange these mussulman populations with the
Greeks of the sea-fooard of Asia^Minor, the quite recent mas-
sacres of Mussulmans in Crete which excite the indignation
even of the Greek newspapers and the 'murder of hundreds
of Turkish students at iSmyrna give unfortunately only too
striking proof of the notorious incapacity of the Hellenes to
administer Mussulmans especially and the absolute incompa-
tibility of their political regime With the racial existence of the
Particularly in a province like that of Smyrna which the
TurJks constitute nearly the four fifths of the population, cul-
tivators and possessors of the soil for nine centuries that
is to say from a period dating from long before tihe Ottoman
conquest it is utterly impossible that the latter should tole-
rate under any from whatever, not only the domination but
even a mere Hellenic intervention. Should this be attempted
the inevitable working of social dynamics would insure the
restoration of our rights; but that would necessarily imply
immense sufferings for the peoples, which no doubt it is the
desire of the Conference to spare them.
The Turks of Smyrna and Aidin are of all the elements of
the Empire the most jealous of their independence, so much
so that the Ottoman governments themselves have often had
difficulty in dealing with them. If the slightest doulbt could
subsist in the mind of the Conference as to the proportion of
Turks and Greeks who people' this vilayet, we should demand
an impartial plebiscite. The result of which could but confirm
the overwhelming numerical superiority of the Turks.
Even the temporary occupation of Smyrna as well as of
her Hinterland by the Hellenes will create a never-failing
source of conflicts of every kind and of permanent anarchy
for all Asia-Minor of which this port is the indispensable na-
tural outlet and the principal gate to the Mediterranean; all
the principles invo ked by the conference in favour of Dantzig
and of Fiume argue with greater reason for the maintenance
of Smyrna under Turkish rule.
Besides the mere presence of Hellenic troops on Ottoman
territory exposes all the Greeks to the inappeasable reproba-
tion of a numerous Turkish population saturated with the spi-
rit of hatred and vengeance which characterises especially
with regard to the Hellenes, the millions of Mussulmans of
Thessaly, Crete, Macedonia and Epire who after having endu-
red there indescribable martyrdom and the most frightful
persecutions recorded in part in the Carnegie report have
not been able to do otherwise than expatriate themselves and
emigrate to Anatolia under the most miserable conditions.
The disorders which were cited with hue and cry to bring
about the Greek landings are pretexts which have no real exi-
stence; but it is certain that the ostentatious presence of Greek
troops provokes at this moment the most bloody disorders
which the government and Venizelist press now think it their
duty to conceal.
Hellenic imperialism in the East, since the independence
of that nation till the annexations of Thessaly and of Crete,
has never been able to exercise itself except with the aid of
the tutelary intervention of some protecting Power. Thus the
Turks are persuaded that the Greeks will not dare undertake
anything if Europe wilhdraws from them her encouragement
and support.. The hope given to the Greeks of dominating the
Turks, whilst flattering the megolomiania of the former and
exasperating the latter tracked to their last refuge, would
henceforth render, illusory all attempt at a common existence
for these two elements condemned however geographically,
to live together or as neighbours.
Feeling these dangers as Ottomans and with the conscious-
ness of, and regret for all the misfortunes of the past we ear-
nestly beg the Peace Conference to prevent future misfortunes
still greater, fhy ordering the re-emlbarkment of the Greek
troops without delay; and as further proof of the earnest cha-
racter of this respectful and sorrowful warning, we are for-
warding a copy of this appeal to all the representatives of
Appeal published by the Bureau the July 1919.
The Greeks at Smyrna.
The occupation of Smyrna by the Greek troops revolting
in itself has given rise to such inhuman acts, that the cons-
cience of every sensible and intelligent person is revolted.
Hardly debarked the army which was supposed to assure
or der gave way to the worse crimes : chained wounded, were
precipitated into the sea and the schoolboys who refused to
cheer Venizelos were shot. That was at the beginning : since
then the Hellenes have done better.
Their conduct was so outrageous that French and British
Officers horrified at the action of those vile allies of the last
hour, and listening to their conscience declared that the crimes
committed were worse than 'anything heard of before and that
fifty thousand Turks, had been done to death by the undiscip-
tined Hellenic troops.
But alas ! that is far from being the real number. The num-
ber of crimes given were those one could not hide. They were
committed in the town of Smyrna and her suburbs to every-
body's knowledge. At Aidin, Ischesme, Carabouroum. Vourla.
Bergamus and particularly at Hirmen.
The crimes surpassed everything imaginable. But whan
a quantity owing to the sly Greeks have been hidden.
They have taken in fact great care to hide the truth from
the foreigners : Young Turkish girls they have themselves
assassinated are exhibited as a proof of Turkish savagery.
They thus show proofs which are false. The day when the oc-
cupation of Smyrna is far behind, we shall ask that full light
be thrown on these happenings. For the moment we ask im-
partial persons and correspondents of papers, to visit the
unoccupied districts of the Vilayet of iSmyrna.. They will see
lots of families without shelter, turned out of their homes
dying on the streets and on the roads from want of food and
medicine. It is there, that their correspondents will see for
themselves what our enemies are capable of Two thousand
refugees, victims of an inconceivable megolomania are actually
exhausted in the vilayet of Brussa. They are expecting day by
day to return to their liberated country. Others have taken
refuge in the zone occupied by the Italian troops, pending their
return home. The Hellenic troops have gone to Smyrna without
the remotest right even without the right of conquest; with
the pretext of assuring order. And the result has been to turn
the richest province of Turkey into a bloody desert.
Greece has proved, she was not worthy of this mission.
Papers like the "Morning Post" the "Information" and the
Italian press in general, prove these facts.
It is thus of the utmost necessity that this painful situ-
ation should cease. Peace in the near East is indispensable for
the whole world, and can only be had, by putting an end to
the Greek occupation. The prudent and late collaboration of
Greece, is surely not worth the sacrifice of hundreds and tho-
usands of human lives.
More than once during the world war has Europe proved
the interest she took in human lives.
Would it not be right for her to take the same steps to
procetc the Turks iff Aidin, victims of such awful crimes ? These
people . (who perhaps have the misfortune of being Moslems)
are they not worthy in their capacity of living creatures, of
such a protection.
What we simply cannot understand is the silence of the
British Government, the British Empire being the Largest Mos-
Appeal published by the Bureau the 20th October 1919.
Appeal to the Great Powers and to the World's
Opinion in Favour of the (Refugees of Smyrna.
Winter is here, as severe in Anatolia as in Northern regi-
Now if ever would foe the moment for nearly two hundred
thousand Turks, driven out of Smyrna by the Greek occupa-
tion, wandering about the roads and in the streets, stripped
of everything, exhausted and ill, to be restored to their homes.
But that cannot be till after the withdrawal of the Greek troops
who retain the country unduly and devastate it while inflicting
the most odious tyranny on the people. Their delegates repe-
ated this recently once more to Colonel Anderson, chief of
staff to General Milne, the commander in chief of the allied
forces in Anatolia.
It is in vain that the pan-Hellenic propaganda services
seek to hide the situation and to make believe that the Turks
themsel ves demand the maintenance of the Greek domination
and long to become fellow-citizens of Venizelos. The manifes-
tations invoked in support of this theory are only unworthy
trickery whose falsehood is sometimes diverted toy ridicule
without being rendered more plausible.
In its support here is one episode amongst others : The
French press generally better (advised, thought itself called
upon recently to call attention to a pro-Hellenic manifestation
by Cheyki^Bey, mufti of Ai'din. Now the mufti of Aidin is cal-
In these circumstances they had simply taken advantage
of the journey of Hadji Moustapha Effendi to Const antinopte,
having as object to cominunicate to the allied high commissi-
oners the Greek misdeeds, and by confusing the titles, to raise
a manifestation in the name of h'is functions against which
he could not protest until after a delay favourable to the fal-
(But these doings deceive no one, the Ottoman Greeiks less
than anyone; and 'even as regards these last the Greeiks of
Hellade have wasted their time. One of the Ottoman Greek
parties does not wish to change its political status, Ottoman
they are, Ottoman they intend to remain. It is sufficient to
read the report published by the honourable M. Stamat, judge
at the law courts of AMin and a Greek by nationality, to be
completely convinced on this point. And the Ottoman Greek
refugees themselves will not return to their homes as long as
the Greeks of Hellade are there. iQff these there are 400 at
Burhanie and 500 at Denizli.
Are the foreigners more inclined to pass from Ottoman
"barbarism" to Greek "civilisation"? Not at all. And that not
even the Italians, French, English, Americans, all natives of
countries with traditional pro Hellenic sympathies, who are
unanimous in claiming that the fate of Smyrna should not be
different to that of Asia Minor. The English Chamber of Com-
merce at Smyrna has taken the decision to do its utmost to
prevent Smyrna's being separated from Asia Minor. Thus the
families, heads of their respective colonies, the Guiffretand
Girods of France as well as the Whitals of England and the
Grynns of America. And passing from wishes to actions, and
from words to deeds, they have sent delegates to Paris and
to London, to demand a thing so simple and yet it aeems, so
complicated in these days of the peoples' right to self-determi-
nation that Turkey should remain in the possession of her
children, and to obtain the solution which aione seems to them
just and profitable, the maintenance of Turkey. That of which
they are daily the helpless witnesses is besides scarcely likely
to convert them; al kinds of misdeeds, pillaging, nothing is
wanting to complete this "peacable occupation"!!! Not even
forced hypocrisy, since to complain is a crime and to protest
in the face of civilised humanity, one still greater! The mufti
of Magnesie, who thought it his duty to present a report to
the Inquiry Commission of the Entente and who was obliged
on that account to flee in haste and whose possessions were
plundered, could say something about is.
And meanwhile in the midst of this pretended civilised
culture, one of the countries blessed by humanity and one of
the most indispensable to its reconstitut'ion after the horrible
catastrophe of the world-war, threatens to fall. The English
of Smyrna estimate at 80 millinn pounds sterling the damege
sustained by the province of Smyrna since the beginning of
the Hellenic occupation.
That is not enough to bring out the whole truth. Thus on
the rights and the deeds in the question of Anatolia we demand
the complete publication of the reports of the Allied Inquiry
Commission at Smyrna. If they are communicated to the Greeks
the most elementary justice demands that they should be so
also to the Turks who do not wish there to be any mystery
when for them unlike their adiversaires there is no longer
any question of the luxury of imperialism, (but of the imperious
necessity of independence.
But whatever resistance the Greeks may make, in the end
truth will out. Intelligent people will not let themselves be ta-
ken in by bluff and many among them can see in spite of all
the efforts made to blind them.
iOf this number is the loyal Commander of the French
cruiser "Democracy" who forwarded to Paris a report crus-
hing for the Greeks and their methods of occupation.
Ijet us proclaim aloud, that this independence they will
never -give up to submit to the Hellenic yoke never, so long
as the last Turk has not fallen by the eastern shores of the
Aegean-<Sea, will the Greek reign there hi peace. For the tran-
quillity of the near Bast and at the same time for that of Eu-
rope, it is necessary that the Powers should insist without de-
lay on the withdrawal of the Greek army from Asia-Minor
where it has nothing to do for the security of life and the safe
guarding of property, and where it has established itself in
defiance of the convention of the armistice and one of the
strongest principles of the rights of man.
Telegram sent on the 10th November to the Superior
Council by the permanent Bureau of the Turkish Congress
At the moment when the Council is examining the ques-
tion of Smyrna it is our desire respectfully to present to it our
wishes which are identical with those of the whole Turkish
nation. We trust that the Council will put an end to the occu-
pation which has taken place without reason and the results
of which have been to fill the country with bloodshed, as has
been reported by the inquiry commission and also to create
enmity between two races destined to live together. The Tur-
kish people will never tolerate an uncivilised domination in
every point inferior to its own, and so long as a single Greek
soldier remains on the sacred soil of the father-land, the last
Turk left alive will continue to fight.
Letter addressed to the French colonel Foulon ... 8
The Tragedy of Smyrna :
'Memorial of the League for the defence of Otto-
man Rights in Smyrna 11
How the barracks were occupied 17
Killed and wounded officers 22
How the governor's Palace was occupied 23
iReport of the military commission 29
Extracts from the Report of the Delegate of the
Ottoman League 34
Letter from an English officer upon the occupa-
tion of Smyrna 36
Letter from a French naval officer 39
The events of Magnesie :
Memorial presented to the high commissioners of
the great Powers 45
The Violated Mosques 47
The events of Akhisar 47
The massacres of Bergamo and of Menemen :
Memorial on the events of IRergamo 48
Extracts from the report presented to the Inquiry
Appeal from the survivors of the massacres of
Menemen to the Allied [Powers ^ 56
The results of an inquiry at Menemen 58
The events of Ayazmend : 61
The burned villages in the region of Bergamo .... 61
The events of Tire 61
The Horrors of the Valley of Meandre :
(Memorial on the atrocities during the occupation
of the town of Aidin 64
Letter from the commandant of the national for-
ces at Tchine 69
Telegram from the Governor of DenMi 71
Report of the Governor of Aidin 72
Telegram from the Commandant of the 57th di-
vision at Tchine 74
Provisional list of killed hi the town of Aidin .... 76
Telegram from the Governor of Aidin concerning
the burned villages 76
Telegram from the Treasurer of Aidin 78
Report of M. Stamath (Greek Ottoman) on the
occupation of Aidin 79
Report of the Governor of Ine-Abad 85
Protestation of the inhabitants of the devastated
Appeal from the population of the Valley of Me-
andre : 91
Report of the survivors of the quarter of D4lbagh
at Aidin , 93
The Atrocities at (NaasUili 93
^Report of the Doctor Mazhar 100
Report of the Doctor Mazhar 105
The burned villages 109
Protestation of the Greek and Armenian Religi-
Circular from the Ottoman League ; Ill
Appeal published by the permanent bureau of the
Turkish congress at Lausanne the July 1919 .... 114
Appeal published by the same bureau the 20 the oc-
tobre 1919 -. 116
Telegram addressed to the Supreme Council by the
same bureau 119
RECENT PUBLICATIONS IN FRENCH
concerning the Turkish question :
Asia Minor and its populations (published by the Turc-Yourdou
Turkish civilisation hi Asia Minor (published by the Turc-
Yourdou of Lausanne).
Memorial on the nationalities established in Asia Minor (pub-
lished by the Turc-Yourdou of Geneva).
Smyrna (from the economic, ethnographical, historic and po-
litical point of view), published by Turc-Yourdou of Lau-
Modern Turkey (published by Turc-Yourdou of Geneva).
An appeal to justice (published by the teague for the defence
of Ottoman rights and approved by the national Congress
held at Smyrna the 17th March 1919, Constantinople).
The Allies we ought to have, by Pierre Loti (Pamphlet repro-
duced by the Association of Turkish Interests, at Geneva).
The Armenian Massacres, by Pierre Loti.
Memorandum on the right of the Turkish nationality (publis-
hed at Lausanne).
Memorial on the rights and claims of the Turkish people (pub-
lished at Geneva).
The Turks and the Armenian question, by Kara Schemsi.
The Turks and Panhellenism, by KaraSchemsi.
The Extermination of the Turks, by Kara Schemsi.
The Turkish Proletariat at the international socialist Congress
of Berne (1919) by Kara Schemsi.
Islam, the Turks and the Society of Nations, by Kara Schemsi.
Turks and Armenians in the light of history (refutations of
the memorial of the Armenian legation) , by Kara iSchemsi.
The events hi Turkey since the armistice, by Ahmed Hakki.
The Turko-Armenian Question, by Rusteim (Bey.
The Allied Powers and Turkey. An address delivered by The
Hon. Yakub Hassan in a public meeting in London.
Publishers. John Keally & Son Ltd. & Johnson Const,
FleetnStr. E. C.
The Armenians, by C. F. Dixon-Johnson.
Publishers : Geo. Toulnim & Son Ltd., Northgate, Black-
The Hellenic Greek Scourge in Turkey, by A. Field.
Published toy Anglo-Ottoman Society, 158 Fleet Street,
London (E. C.
The Sword Against Islam, by Shaikh M. H. KMwai of Gadia.
Editors : 158 Fleet Strset, London E. C.
See also :
The Allied Powers and Turkey. An address delivered by The Hon.
Yakub Hassan in a public meeting in London.
Publishers: John Really & Son Ltd. & Johnson Coust,
Fleef-Str. E. C.
The Armenians, by C. F. Dixon-Johnson.
Publishers : Geo. Toulnim & Son Ltd., Northgate, Black-
The Hellenic Greek Scourge in Turkey, by A. Field.
Published by Anglo-Ottoman Society^ 158 Fleet Street,
London E. C.
The Sword Against Islam, by .Shaikh M. H. Kidwai of Gadia.
Editors : 158 Fleet Strset, London E. C.
Recent Publications in French
concerning the Turkish question :
Asia Minor and its populations (published by the Turc-Yourdou ot
Turkish civilisation in Asia Minor (published by the Turc-Yourdou of
Memorial on the nationalities established in Asia Minor (published by the
Turc-Yourdou of Geneva).
Smyrna (from the economic, ethnographical, historic and political
point of view), published by Turc-Yourdou of Lausanne.
Modern Turkey (published by Turc-Yourdou of Geneva).
An appeal to justice (published by the league for the defence of
Ottoman rights and approved by the national Congress held
at Smyrna the 17 th March 1919, Constantinople).
The Allies we oaght to have, by Pierre Loti (Pamphlet reproduced
by the Association of Turkish Interests, at Geneva).
The Armenian Massacres, by Pierre Loti.
Memorandum on the right of the Turkish nationality (published at Lau-
Memorial on tht rights and claims of the Turkish people (published at
The Turks and the Armenian question, by Kara Schemsi.
The Turks and Panhellenisni, by Kara Schemsi.
The Extermination of the Turks, by Kara Schemsi.
The Turkish Proletariat at the international socialist Congress of Berne (1919)
by Kara Schemsi.
Islam, the Turks and the Society of Nations, by Kara Schemsi.
Turks and Armenians in the light of history (refutations of the memo-
rial of the Armenian legation), bf Kara Schemsi.
The events in Turkey since the armistice, by Ahmed Hakki.
The Turko-Armenian Question, bv Husteim Bev.